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Chapter 9 Section 1 Vocabulary

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2 Chapter 9 Section 1 Vocabulary
ATP – adenosine triphosphate ADP – adenosine diphosphate

3 1. The Cell’s need for energy
Energy is essential for life - must be able to acquire, store, and use energy in a controlled manner Uses for energy in the cell  - active transport, cell division, movement, production and storage of proteins Uses for energy in your body  - muscles, brain, digestion, etc. 

4 2. How do we get this energy?
When you need energy, you eat - this food eventually gets into your cells and is converted into a type of quick energy molecule called ATP The energy is stored in the bonds of ATP 

5 3. Forming and Breaking ATP
the phosphates of ATP do not like being near each other, and it takes energy to get them to bond AMP  one phosphate attached ADP  two phosphates attached ATP  three phosphates attached The energy between these bonds is available when the bonds break The molecule is recycleable 


7 4. How to get the energy from ATP’s bonds
When work needs to be done, an ATP molecule binds to a specific site on the molecule needing the work The phosphate bond is broken, energy is released and used right away ATP is now ADP, which is then released from the molecule that needed the energy Another ATP molecule then takes it’s spot if more energy is needed 

8 5. Uses of Cell Energy making new molecules (enzymes) Build membranes
Build new cell organelles Maintain homeostasis Move molecules and ions around Active transport! 

9 Sunlight  Carbon dioxide  (CO2) Oxygen (O2) Water  (H2O)  sugar (C6H12O6)

10 Chapter 9 Section 2 Vocabulary
Light-dependent reactions Electron transport chain Chlorophyll Pigment

11 6. Photosynthesis Trapping energy from sunlight
Plants convert sunlight into ATP - because it’s not always light, plants store the ATP Plants use this energy (ATP) to build sugar molecules This is called “photosynthesis” 

12 Photosynthesis continued…
Happens in two phases: 1. Light-dependent reactions - sunlight  ATP 2. Light-independent reactions - ATP used produce sugars from CO2 Light +6CO2 + 6H2O  C6H12O6 + 6O2 

13 7. Chloroplasts & Pigments
Chloroplast  organelle where photosynthesis happens Thylakoid discs are inside the chloroplast - these contain the pigment chlorophyll, where the sunlight is trapped - chlorophyll traps all light except green 

14 8. The Light-Dependent Reactions (Light Reactions)
1. Sunlight strikes the chlorophyll molecules 2. Water is split, oxygen departs and the energy is transferred to electrons (Hydrogens) 3. The hydrogens pass down the 1st Electron Transport Chain - energy is trapped in ATP molecules 4. The hydrogens pass down the 2nd Electron Transport Chain where the hydrogens get trapped by NADP+ (becomes NADPH) 5. ATP & NADPH will go onto the Dark Reactions 


16 Turn in coloring AND active reading
Sunlight  Carbon dioxide  (CO2) Oxygen (O2) Water  (H2O)  sugar (C6H12O6)

17 Chapter 9 Section 2 Vocabulary
Photosynthesis Light-independent reactions Calvin Cycle


19 9. Restoring electrons to chlorophyll
Most of the electrons (H’s) left with NADPH Electrons must be at chlorophyll to grab the sunlight Water is split into H and O to restore the electrons to chlorophyll This reaction is called “photolysis” 


21 10.The Light-Independent Reactions (Dark Reactions, Calvin Cycle)
ATP & NADPH from Light Reactions comes here The energy & hydrogens are used to make sugar (C6H12O6) from CO2 It takes 6 rounds on the Calvin Cycle to make one sugar molecule 


23 Section Assessments Discuss and write answers at the end of your notes: Page 230 (1-4)


25 Turn in Photosynthesis review sheet
 water Oxygen  (O2) Carbon dioxide (CO2) Food  (sugar, C6H12O6)  ATP

26 Chapter 9 Section 3 Vocabulary
Cellular respiration Glycolysis Aerobic Citric acid cycle Anaerobic Lactic acid fermentation

27 11. Getting Energy to make ATP
Mitochondria break down food to make ATP - this is called cellular respiration; there are three stages: 1. Glycolysis 2. Citric Acid Cycle (AKA Krebs cycle) 3. Electron Transport Chain 


29 12. Glycolysis Splits glucose (6 carbon sugar) into two pyruvates (3 carbon sugars) Two ATPs are needed to do this, but four ATPs are produced (net gain of two ATPs) Anaerobic process & occurs in the cytoplasm of the cell NAD+ is an electron carrier; it picks up electrons here and becomes NADH (to be used later in the electron transport chain) 


31 13. From glycolysis to the citric acid cycle
happens after glucose splits to become pyruvate - pyruvate loses a CO2 molecule - the sugar fragment combines with coenzyme A to become “acetyl CoA” - this produces a NADH and an H+ 

32 14. Citric Acid Cycle 1. Each Acetyl-CoA (2 carbons) enters the Citric Acid Cycle and binds to oxaloacetic acid (4 carbons) and becomes citric acid (6 carbons) 2. CO2 is removed and a NADH is produced 3. Another CO2 is removed and 1 ATP and 1 NADH are produced 4. FADH2 and NADH are produced and oxaloacetic acid is recycled 


34 15. Electron Transport Chain
the ETC is a chain made of proteins NADH and FADH2 deposit their electrons at the beginning The electrons are attracted to oxygen, which lies at the end of the chain As they pass, they transfer energy which will get trapped in the bonds of ATP LOTS of ATP is produced When they join oxygen, it becomes water 



37 Turn in Cellular Respiration sheet
Sunlight  Carbon dioxide  (CO2) Oxygen (O2) Water  (H2O)  sugar (C6H12O6)

38  water Oxygen  (O2) Carbon dioxide (CO2) Food   ATP
(sugar, C6H12O6)  ATP


40 16. Fermentation Happens when there is no oxygen Two kinds:
1. Lactic acid fermentation (muscle cells) 2. Alcoholic fermentation (yeast) Occurs AFTER glycolysis and BEFORE the Citric Acid Cycle 


42 Section assessments Discuss and write answers on your SAQ sheet
Page 237 (1 – 5) The end!

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