Presentation on theme: "Pregnancy and Parenting. Do Now… Name the advantages and disadvantages of natural birth versus the use of medication during delivery. TO BE COLLECTED!"— Presentation transcript:
Fertilization Fertilization is the union of the sperm and the ovum, or egg. This occurs around the time of ovulation in a women. – The egg is capable of being fertilized for about 12-24 hours after ovulation. – The sperm can live inside a woman’s body for up to 5 days. This occurs in the fallopian tube. As soon as the ovum is fertilized, it is called a zygote.
Zygote Once the zygote has formed, a protective membrane around it will prevent more sperm from entering the ovum. As the zygote makes its way to the uterus the cells will divide many times to form a cluster of cells that has a hollow space in the center. This is called a blastocyst.
Implantation When the blastocyst attaches to the lining of the uterus. The lining of the uterus is made up of layers of tissue that will protect and nourish the fertilized egg. Once implanted the cluster of cells is now called an embryo. The embryo is now the size of a dot on top the letter “i.”
Embryonic Development The cells of the embryo will continue to divide and form 3 layers of tissue. One layer becomes the respiratory and digestive systems. Another layer develops into muscles, bones, blood vessels, and skin. The third layer becomes the nervous system, sense organs and the mouth.
Embryonic Development Con’t The Amniotic Sac will also form at this time. This is a sac filled with fluid that forms and surrounds the developing embryo. It acts as a shock absorber, and insulates the embryo from temperature changes. Placenta – A blood rich tissue developed from an outer layer of cells from the embryo and tissue from the mother. The embryo is connected to the placenta by the umbilical cord. Umbilical cord – a tube through which nutrients and oxygen pass from the mother’s blood into the embryo’s blood. The umbilical cord also carried waste products from the embryo.
Embryonic Development Con’t During the first six weeks the embryo grows rapidly in length and gains weight. At the start of the embryonic period the embryo is about.5-1 inch long. At eight weeks the embryo is 1.5 inches long. At the end of the eighth week the embryo is now called the fetus, and will be called the fetus till birth.
Fetal Development The development of the fetus is now divided into 3 trimesters. 1 st trimester – 1 to 3 months 2 nd trimester – 4 to 6 months 3 rd trimester – 7 to 9 months
1 st Trimester During the 1 st month: the blood begins circulating, and the brain begins to form but does not function During the 2 nd month: the external body parts and internal organs begin to form, genitals also start to form but you can not tell the gender yet. During the 3 rd month: the male and female begin to look different, fingers, toes, and nails start to form, the head is about half the size it will be at birth.
2 nd Trimester During the 4 th month: Muscles move, sweat glands, eyebrows, and eyelashes begin to form. During the 5 th month: fetus gets hair, movements can be felt, heartbeat can be heard. During the 6 th month: the brain starts to work, eyes open, ears work, finger and footprints form.
3 rd Trimester During the 7 th month: the fetus adds body fat, moves a lot, responds to sound During the 8 th month: less active, still growing in weight and length, nails and bones begin to harden During the 9 th month: Lungs and other organs become fully developed (except for brain and reproductive system which won’t fully mature until teen years)
Ultrasounds 1 st Trimester 2 nd Trimester 3rd Trimester
Do Now… Name two developmental changes to the fetus during each of the 3 trimesters. – 1 st Trimester – 2 nd Trimester – 3 rd Trimester Take out Baby Book – Day 3 Journal and Log Due Today Mr. Colabella for Family Portraits.
How do you know your pregnant? Symptoms include missed menstrual period, breast tenderness, morning sickness, frequent urination. Pregnancy Tests – Blood and Urine Tests test for the hCG hormone. – Blood tests can test for hCG sooner and are more accurate. (6-8 days after ovulation) – Home pregnancy tests are the most accurate one week after a missed period.
Physical Changes 1 st trimester: increase in hormones, breast swell, frequent urination, morning sickness, vaginal irritation, fatigue 2 nd trimester: morning sickness disappears, constipation, nosebleed may occur, edema (water retention and swelling) 3 rd trimester: weight gain (25-35lbs), discomfort, backaches, shortness of breath, swelling, heartburn, frequent urination
Psychological Changes Depression Negative/positive emotions Psychological well being is best among those that have social support. Postpartum depression – also known as the “baby blues,” happens after the birth and consists of mood swings and crying spells. May go away on own, if not the mother will need to seek medical treatment
Father/Partner’s Role Couvade Syndrome – a healthy man whose partner is expecting a baby experiences pregnancy symptoms, “sympathetic pregnancy” Symptoms occur during the 1 st and 3 rd trimesters and consist of nausea, heartburn, abdominal pain, appetite changes, backaches, etc. Helps with labor – breathing techniques, may hold a leg, and cuts the umbilical cord
Prenatal Care Pregnant women should have regular visits with an OB/GYN or midwife. Blood Tests, pelvic examinations to identify any problems early on Ask questions Nutrition Monitor weight Exercise programs
Prenatal Nutrition The mother to be needs large amounts of micronutrients, especially calcium, Vitamin E, Zinc, and Iron. Iron Deficiency – will cause the fetus to draw its supply from the mother and leave the mother anemic, and exhausted. Zinc Deficiency – malformations of the central nervous system. Eating foods high in Folic Acid (whole grains and fish) reduces the risk of certain birth defects. Spina Bifida – a birth defect where the backbone and the spinal canal do not close before birth
Medicines, Drugs, and Pregnancy Any medication whether over-the-counter or prescription pose a potential danger to the fetus. If illegal drugs are taken during pregnancy the baby can be born addicted and dependent on the drug. Caffeine has been associated with an increased risk of birth defects and other problems. Other harmful substances: food additives, aspirin, antibiotics, toxins, such as carbon monoxide and lead.
Alcohol and Pregnancy Females who drink alcohol during pregnancy may cause permanent damage to the developing baby. Alcohol use had been associated with many birth defects. The alcohol passes from the mother into the bloodstream of the fetus. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) – mental retardation, slow growth, and physical defects, such as cleft palate, and hip dislocation.
Tobacco and Pregnancy Babies born to mothers who use tobacco have a greater chance of being born prematurely, and with low birth weights. Babies that weigh less than 5 ½ lbs are at risk for serious health problems. Low birth weight is the leading cause of death in a baby’s first year. Smoking may affect the growth, mental development, and behavior of a child up to age 11. Children also have a higher incidence of respiratory problems, such as bronchitis and pneumonia.
Stages of Labor 1 st stage: Dilation- Stretching of the cervix, results from mild contractions. 2 nd stage: Begins when the cervix is fully dilated (8-10 centimeters), Passage of the baby through the birth canal, caused by continuing contractions. – Crowning – top of the head is visible – Episiotomy – incision made to the vaginal entrance 3 rd stage: After Birth-contractions continue after the baby is born for 10 to 15 minutes to push out the placenta.
Cesarean Section Also known as a “C-Section” A method of delivering a baby surgically by an incision to the mother’s abdomen and uterus. Reasons: – Baby is too large – Cervix is not dilating – Umbilical cord – Excessive bleeding – Baby is in distress – Baby is in an abnormal position Cesarean Section Clip
Recovery Time Vaginal Birth – 2 days after delivery C-Section – 4 days after delivery
Infertility Infertility refers to a woman’s inability to conceive and give birth to a living child, or man’s inability to impregnate a woman. Causes: – Female – Pelvic Inflammatory Disease, Failure to ovulate, blockage of the fallopian tubes, body fat, hormones – Male – Infections to the reproductive system caused by STDs, low sperm count, low sperm motility – Both – Stress, lack of knowledge
Questions Why do miscarriages happen? – 10-25% of all clinically recognized pregnancies will end in a miscarriage – Most miscarriage will occur within the first 13 weeks – Reasons for miscarriages vary and often can not be identified – Examples: chromosomal abnormalities, hormonal problems, lifestyle, problems with implantation, – Maternal age – Maternal trauma
Questions Birth Defects? – 1 in every 33 babies is born with a birth defect. Center for Disease Control Statistics
Questions What is the average number of children parents have? According to 2010 Census 1.88 When do you start to show? Most women start showing between 3 and 4 months Women who have been pregnant before my start showing sooner