Grammar and usage Verb-ed form as an adjective or adverb
1. attribute( 定语 ) The lost child was found at last. The child lost in the park was found at last. 单独及物动词的过去分词一般置于被修饰名词 __ ， 而过去分词短语则要位于名词之 __ 前 后
1 ） A single verb-ed can appear before a noun modifying the noun like an adjective. It can be changed into an attributive clause. We should drink boiled water. We should drink water which has been boiled. They took the woman who was injured to the nearby hospital at once. They took the injured woman to the nearby hospital at once.
Scientific experiments carried out by the students without a teacher can be dangerous. __________________ _____________________________ Scientific experiments which are carried out by the students without a teacher can be dangerous. The ground is covered with fallen leaves when autumn wind blows. _________ The ground is covered with leaves which are fallen when autumn wind blows. × Find out the differences which have fallen
the retired worker 退休工人 past a widely used language passive the highly praised scientist passive fallen leaves 落叶 past 及物动词的过去分词具有被动和完成意义. 不及物动词的过去分词只表示 完成意义
. fallen leaves 落叶 falling leaves 正在飘落的树叶 the sun 升起的太阳 the sun 正在升起的太阳 a country 发达国家 a country 发展中国家 risen rising developed developing Compare the phrases
2) A verb-ed phrase can appear after a noun to modify the noun like an attributive clause does. The name mentioned in the letter was unknown to me. The name which was mentioned in the letter was unknown to me. The firemen were trying to rescue the people trapped in the fire. The firemen were trying to rescue the people who were trapped in the fire.
The main road ___________ will be completed next year. The main road______________________will be completed next year that/which is being built The main road ________________(build) next week is benefical to our life. to be built ccicci The main road ________________(build) last year is benefical to our life. built 思考：不定式，现在分词，过去分词都可以 做定语，那什么区别吗？ being built
_______ yesterday The meeting ___________ now __________ tomorrow is of great importance. (hold) held being held to be held 分析： 不定式作定语表示动作将要去做； 现在分词作定语表动作正在进行，且分词和 主语呈主动关系； 而过去分词做定语表示动作已完成， 且和主语之间是被动关系。
3) A verb-ed can also be used as a non- restrictive attribute ( 非限定性定语 ) which is separated from the noun it modifies by a comma( 逗号 ). The books, written by Lu Xun, are popular with many Chinese people. The books, which were written by Lu Xun, are popular with many Chinese people. The meeting, which was attended by one thousand students, was a success. The meeting, attended by one thousand students, was a success.
2. Predictive 表语 Edison became interested in science when he was very young. The little boy was very excited when he heard that he could go to the party. __________ ________ 总结：过去分词通常跟在系动词： be, seem, appear, look, sound,feel, remain, stay, become… 等之后，表示 “ 感到....” ，主 语多数情况下是人。
The window is broken. The room is deserted. It was broken by Tim. She has been deserted by her husband. 被动结构 ( 表示动作 )be+ 表语结构 ( 表示状态 )
3. Object complement 1.As he knows very little English, he finds it difficult to make himself understood. 2.I had my house painted yesterday _______________ _________ 总结：过去分词也可用在感官动词： see, hear, notice, feel, watch... 及使役动词 get, have, make, leave/ keep, find 之后做宾补。
I saw Mary _______ (dance) in the gym yesterday. I saw Mary ________ (dance) in the gym at that time. I saw Mary _______ (praise) by her teacher in the classroom. He watched the bed ______ (carry )out of the door. dance dancing praised 1)feel/hear/notice/see/watch+sb/sth+ do/doing/done carried
Keep your mouth _____ (shut) and your eyes open. They had the machine _______ (run) all the night. Every year, the landlord had the slaves ________ (pick) cottons. The manager told the workers to have the wall __________(paint) before the weekend. running pick painted 2)get/have/make/keep/leave+sb/sth+ do/doing/done shut
with+ 宾语 +to do With+ 宾语 +done With+ 宾语 +doing 1.With so many difficult problems _____(solve),he could travel with his wife. 2.With so many difficult problems ___________(solve),he couldn’t travel with his wife. 3.With so many difficult problems_____ (fill)his mind,he couldn't solve these problems. 4.He had to come back home with his money_______/___( 用光） solved to solve filling running outrun out of
1. Most of the artists _____ to the party were from South Africa. (’90NMET) A. invited B. to invite C. being invited D. had been invited
2. The disc, digitally ______ in the studio, sounded fantastic at the party that night. （ ’04 上海） A. recorded B. recording C. to be recorded D. having recorded
3. I was very ____ to find all the tickets had been sold out when I got there. A.disappoint B. to disappoint C. disappointing D. disappointed
1.Tired after the trip, he soon fell asleep. 2.Given more time, I would have worked out the problem. 3.Lost in thought, he almost ran into a car. 4.The teacher came in, followed by some students. 5.Seen from the hill, the city looks like a garden. 原因状语 条件状语 伴随状语 时间状语
过去分词作状语 过去分词作状语，修饰谓语，大多说明动作发生的背景 或情景，表示时间、条件、原因、让步、伴随情况等。 一般说来，这一结构的逻辑主语是主句的主语。 Seen from the space, the earth looks blue. When (it is ) seen from space, the earth looks blue. Although (he was) beaten by the enemy, he refused to let out the secret. Beaten by the enemy, he refused to let out the secret.
_____for a long time, the book looks old. ______the book, I find it useful. （ use ） He came into the classroom,_______ by some students. He came into the classroom,________ some students. (follow) 区别：现在分词与过去分词作状语 Used Using followed following
1. ____ more attention, the trees could have grown better. A. Given B. To give C. Giving D. Having given 2. Climbing mountains was ____, so we all felt ____. A.tiring ; tired B. tired ; tiring C. tiring ; tiring D. tired ; tired 3. The ____ morning, the father came into the lonely house, ____ by his naughty boy. A. following ; following B. followed ; followed C. following ; followed D. followed ; following
4. ____ these pictures, I couldn’t help thinking of those days when I was in Beijing. ____ from the top of a thirty-storeyed building, Beijing looks more magnificent. A.Seeing ; seen B. Seen ; seeing C. Seeing ; seeing D. Seen ; seen
5. I was fortunate to pick up a wallet ____ on the ground on the way home, but unfortunately for me, I found my colour TV set ____ when I got home. A. lying; stolen B. laying; stealing C. lay; stolen D. lying; stealing 6. ____ better attention, the vegetables could have grown better with the sun shining brightly in the sky and ____ them light. A. Giving; given B. Given; given C. Giving; giving D. Given; giving
6. ____ he still could not understand it. A. Told many times B. Having been telling many times C. He has been told many times D. Since he had been told many times 7. On hearing the ____ news, I was too ____ to sleep. A. exciting ; excited B. excited ; exciting C. exciting ; exciting D. excited ; excited