2Interventions effective in helping low-achieving students First ask “Why?”Define the concern: academic, behavioral, affective, medical, choice, lack of understanding, attention, attention seeking (It is always better to look ‘bad’ than to look ‘stupid’)Use problem solving teams for support and suggestions for alternative strategiesIntervention strategies are not guaranteed to work; however, they are a step in the right directionKeep trying new things until success is achieved
3Attention DeficitsHyperactive=excessive activity that is age inappropriateConsider behavior modification approaches with Positive Behavioral SupportsUse contracts with clear rewards and consequences (both signatures required)Talk with parents and other teachers, are they seeing the same behaviors?What are they doing that works?
4Attention Describes a number of activities Focusing on one stimulus at a timeResisting distractionsSustaining effort over timePaying selective attention to one thing to the exclusion of othersMaintaining focus over timeNaglieri, J.A. & Pickering, E.B. (2003). Helping children learn: Intervention handouts for use in school and at home. Baltimore, MA: Brookes Publishing, p. 39.
5Classroom problems related to attention Limited ability to work for more than a few minutes on one thingFailure to focus on relevant aspects of assignmentsDifficulty in resisting distractions in the classroomIncomplete work because the child could not sustain the effortNaglieri, J.A. & Pickering, E.B. (2003). Helping children learn: Intervention handouts for use in school and at home. Baltimore, MA: Brookes Publishing, p. 37.
6Peer Pressure for Positive Outcomes Consider a student who is consistently out of his/her chair and bothering neighbors:Reward in seat behavior (i.e., verbal praise, token, extra free time, line leader, or designated activity)Use consequences or peer pressure to “correct” the undesirable behaviorsUse the Premack Principle
7Example of Peer Pressure to Correct Behavior Divide the room into four quadrantsWhen a student in a quadrant is out of seat or bothering neighbors, his/her name goes on the board under that quadrantThe quadrant with the least number of names (or tallies) receives a reward
8Premack PrincipleUse a desirable activity to serve as a reward contingent upon completing an undesirable activity“Grandma’s trick: Eat your peas and then you can have dessert.”Finish your spelling words, and you can work on the computer for five minutes
9Stress Outlets for Psychomotor Agitation Psychomotor agitation, hyperactivity, can be alleviated through physical outlets (e.g., taking a note to the office, walking around to hand out papers, quietly tapping toes inside of shoes, sharpening a pencil, and etc.)Alternate quiet and active periodsAlways replace the undesirable behavior with a desirable behavior
10Distractibility: Difficulty in inhibiting responses to stimuli Distractibility: Difficulty in inhibiting responses to stimuli. Attention is easily diverted to other stimuli.Eliminate excess stimuli when possible (i.e., study carrels, earplugs, quiet distraction free area to complete written tasks)Be specific and firm in directions, limit verbiage and number of steps involvedChange input mode, a multi-sensory presentation may be helpful in introducing new concepts or lecture
11Short Attention Span Arrange material from easy to difficult Allow time for attention to shiftCheck to see if the student understands, “Tell me what I said in your own words.”Use small, sequenced steps and gradually increase the length of desired tasksReduce the complexity of the task if appropriate (instead of 30 math mad minute problems, 10 per side of paper)
12Short Attention SpanEncourage self-monitoring “Give them a goal to shoot for.”Find out if the student knows:What to do,How to do it, andWhy he is doing it.
13Impulsive: tendency to respond without careful consideration-activity without careful thought, or reflection.These students tend to guess rather than using reflective thinking processesImpulsive ‘blurting’ is often an issueTeach, “Stop-Think-Act” strategiesProvide “think time”Consider response cost procedures-When a student makes impulsive errors, he/she “loses” a privilegeWhen a student uses his/her S-T-A process, he/she gets a reward or gets to avoid a distasteful task
14Memory Deficits: difficulty remembering what has been said or demonstrated Overlearn-repeated practice, consistent review, with distributed practiceRehearsal-repetition of small amounts of information immediately after receiving it (repeating “Bob, Bob, Bob” after meeting a new person named ‘Bob’)Teach the use of: highlighting, advanced organizers, establishing relationships/associations between old and new materials, mnemonic devices, tape recordersReduce the number of items to be memorized or learned, and gradually increase as success is achievedMake the materials meaningful, relevant, and useful
15Disorganization: Inability to structure or order work, time, or surroundings Encourage asking questions for clarificationHelp eliminate time wastersPrepare checklists of what needs to be done, and what needs to be firstPrepare assignment notebooksProvide routine and structureProvide home to school communicationProvide specific and consistent directionsProvide written assignmentsProvide list of materials needed for assignment
16Poor Learning Skills: Difficulty in knowing how to learn Teach the student how to organize the problem:What does the problem require?What am I asked to do?What am I given?What shall I do?
17Poor Learning Skills: Difficulty in knowing how to learn These students tend to equate learning with memorizing.Teachers need to help develop coping skills: identify key words, how to take notes, outlining, summarizingTeach the student to search for clues that organize the problem and the dataSeparate the problem into meaningful parts
18Poor Learning Skills: Difficulty in knowing how to learn Provide test taking strategies:Examine entire test before answering to understand expectations.Estimate how much time will be needed in each area of test.Answer first those that you know.Essay questions: write down key ideas, main points, in brief form for outline.If stumped, move on. Try to give your best guess if not penalized for wrong answers.If you guess on an answer, don’t change it! Your first guess is usually best.
19Poor Learning Skills: Difficulty in knowing how to learn Analyze difficulties in problem solvingAbility-consider modifying difficulty of problem, possibly moving from the more abstract to more concreteMotivation-consider the degree of frustrationInformation-help to relate information to that the student already knows to help solve the problemExperience-begin with less difficult problems and progress to more difficult
20Poor Learning Skills: Difficulty in listening Listening skills can be enhanced by:Classroom discussions regarding how listening skills affect school work, out-of-school living, and behaviorRead interesting articles, ask the students to write down what they heard, have the students compare the original article to what they wrote. Ask, “does your report cover the news?”Provide verbal steps to problem solving, and have the students repeat back in their own wordsProximity teaching with prompts to attend frequentlyMulti-modal presentation
21Poor Learning Skills: Difficulty in knowing how to learn Help students develop realistic goalsExamine actions needed to reach goalsInvolve parents in responsibility trainingReinforcement opportunitiesUnderstand strengths and weaknesses
22Poor Study Habits: the inability, particularly when working alone, to use proper procedures in the studying processPORCUPINEPurpose-determine purpose of materialOverview-survey the materialRead-relating the material to the purposeConsider-ponder the significanceUnderline-important points as you readParaphrase-put into your own wordsInvent-ways to remember such as mnemonic devices, imagery, analogiesNeed-Evaluate in relation to need and purposeElaborate-what are the implications
23Poor Study Habits: the inability, particularly when working alone, to use proper procedures in the studying processSQ3R (reading)SurveyQuestionReadReflectRecite
24Poor Study Habits: the inability, particularly when working alone, to use proper procedures in the studying processCognitive Behavioral Approach (self-monitoring)Talk it through!“Now the first thing I need to do is get my materials together.”“Second, let’s see, I’ll turn to page 46.”“I now survey the material. Okay that’s done.”“Now I should read to answer certain questions.”
25Intervention Techniques: Consider appropriateness of the form of testing. (oral vs. written, open ended questions vs. forced choice answers)Consider appropriateness of grading or structure of some test items (verbiage, abstract vs. concrete)Utilize short term goals, small increments of change, peer tutoring, teaching style changesTask analysis regarding expectations and grasp of prerequisites
26Intervention Techniques: Consider conditions of learning: formal vs. informal, directive vs. nondirectiveConcrete examples vs. abstractNeed for increased time on taskSpecial techniques such as: programmed instruction, special learning activities, student involvement in planning, frequent feedback, alternative reading materials
27Intervention Techniques: Reward-after successful completion of tasksBehaviors that are reinforced are most likely to reoccurLearning processes which involve experiencing, doing, and reacting promotes retentionDeliberate recall, immediately after learning, and in the students’ own words, reduces the possibility of forgetting new material
28Intervention Techniques: Auditory Vocal-inability to learn by use of words or sound symbols Use visual stimuliUse sight word methods in readingUse sight words and flash cardsUse context cluesPresent a printed model of a word. Have the child trace the model with his/her finger, saying the respective phoneme for each grapheme as he/she traces it. He/she should say the total word at the conclusion. Repeat several times.
29Intervention Techniques: Auditory Receptive-inability to understand what is heard Use short, one-concept phrases and have the child repeat themTell the child to listen before you say something that is importantHave the child close their eyes, then make a noise and have them try to identify itHave the child write from dictation
30Intervention Techniques: Verbal Expression difficulty generating or expressing ideas or concepts Begin a story and have the child invent the ending.Provide story prompts.Ask the child to complete open-ended sentences: In the morning I wake up _____________________ I hurry to dress so I can _______________
31Intervention Techniques: Vocabulary Strategies LINCSList the partsIdentify a reminding wordNote a LINCing storyCreate a LINCing pictureSelf-test
32Intervention Techniques: Word Identification DISSECTDiscover the contextIsolate the PrefixSeparate the SuffixSay the StemExamine the StemCheck with someoneTry the dictionary
33Intervention Techniques: First Letter Mnemonics Form a wordInsert a letterRearrange the lettersShape a sentenceTry combinations
34Intervention Techniques: Studying and Remembering LISTSLook for cluesInvestigate the itemsSelect a mnemonic deviceTransfer information to a cardSelf-test
35Learning Atmosphere nine conditions for success High expectationsFreedom-mistakes are okayRespect-right to be heard and have an opinionWarmth and Acceptance-safe and supportive learning environmentStudent Value-everyone needs to feel importantLeadership-friendly and fair, but in controlSuccess-atmosphere of success rather than failureEncouragement-techniques to promote not discouragePromotion of peer acceptance-feelings of belonging and acceptanceFisher, R. I. (1987). Learning difficulties strategies for helpingstudents. Dubuque, Iowa: Kendall/Hunt Publishing Co.
36Students Arriving Late to Class Provide incentives (rewards or privilegeSet up fun, short “bell ringer” activities before class to motivate students to show up on timeSet up class wide reward system where students “clock in” and tally their time to earn a group privilege (early birds add to the total and late arrivals subtract)Late arrivers must make up their time, preferably with an undesirable taskOpen and frequent communication with parentsCheck with other teachers to make sure that they are actually being released with adequate time to get to your classClasswork & homework: Trouble student problems from start to finish. Retrieved Dec. 21, 2006from:
37Students forgetting necessary work materials Remind students at the end of class about books or other materials they will needKeep a collection of ‘loaners’ they can use (pens, pencils, papers, and writing paper)Encourage parents to supervise book bag preparations before students leave for schoolTeach the class a general system for organizing work and storing materialsUse ‘peer buddies’ (Share, borrow, check in)Set up a self-monitoring systemClasswork & homework: Trouble student problems from start to finish. Retrieved Dec. 21, 2006 from:
38Teaching self-monitoring Now Where Did I Put That Teaching self-monitoring Now Where Did I Put That?! Organization and Day PlannersBeen there? Done that? Lost dozens? Using a day planner is one of the most essential coping skills that a student with attentional issues or disorganization struggles can develop; however, it is also a skill that they must practice and develop over time. Actually, using a day planner is not a single skill, but involves a set of skills that can be worked on one-by-one.
39Why Can’t I Just… “It’s in the car.” “I haven’t gotten to Wal-Mart yet.” “I forgot it today.” When I am working with a student to develop the habit of using a day planner, I hear many excuses as to why it is not with them. The only way for their day planner to become a life planner and manager is to become so attached to it, they can’t live without it. If it is not in their arms, they should feel a sense of loneliness!Put it in the same place every nightReach for it before you reach for your jacket, purse, wallet, etc.Look for it before you ever get out of the car, off the bus, etc.Teach parents, friends, teachers to remind you if it isn’t present.“If found please return to….” Emblazed in bright bold letters across the front and back.Back up system. Stop think act! If you leave it behind, find it before you have gotten too far in your day! It’s easier to ‘trace your steps’ when it has been one class period, than when it has been a day or week!Rehearse, rehearse, and rehearse.Write EVERYTHING in your day planner.Develop the unwavering habit that all assignments, events, materials, etc. are written in your day planner before your hind end leaves your seat! Do not rely on the ‘I’ll remember to write that later’ philosophy. You haven’t in the past, and you won’t in the future!
40How’s That Working for You So Far How’s That Working for You So Far? The only true definition of crazy is repeating a behavior proven to be unsuccessful in the past, and expecting it to succeed, then being devastated when it does not!Stick ALL of your papers in the planner, and at the end of the day sort, complete, file, and protect! Don’t stick your papers in your books, under your bed, in your locker…you won’t remember!Teachers and Parents: set up a system with your teachers and parents that they will ask you for your papers if they don’t receive them. If you’ve got them done, you should develop and support a plan to get the credit! Ask mom or dad to sign homework when you are done, and ask your teachers to sign your planner when you have assignments written down!At first, parents and teachers should be responsible for this oversight. If successful in habit forming, the student might be able to take over some of the responsibility. But never ASSUME!! They have and will always have the disability…it is not a CHOICE and should not be punished!
41Lists Are Our FRIENDS!Learn the beauty of lists! Write everything down, check everything off as you complete. This should be a DAILY activity for you for the REST OF YOUR LIFE!You may have multiple lists-keep them all on the same paper! Examples:Homework to do’sshort term projects paperslong term projects paperslong term projects need a timeline, teacher or parent to ‘check in’ on progress, and extra discipline on our part!family activities coming upextracurricular activitiespersonal goals
42Procrastination is the ENEMY! Developing our ‘to do’ list includes creating your daily action plan, weekly action plan, monthly action plan, and long term plans.Prioritize…ask teacher or parent for help in the beginningDefine actions or tasks which need to be accomplishedList materials needed in order to accomplish tasksList the time needed to accomplishLearn to become a better time estimatorTaking items from ‘to do’ list and placing them on daily action planner, with assigned times, forces us to begin thinking about how long things take and making realistic goalsWhen making daily plan, allow for the ‘what have I forgotten scenario’Learn to plan for contingenciesTo-dos become not-dones when we fail to plan for the ‘what have I forgottens’Traffic happensBooks are forgotten at homePapers are lost
43Take a Deep Breath Stop the ‘why can’t I just’ voice Follow Your Plan! None of us wake up in the morning hoping to forget things, disappoint people, or feel stupid. We, like every other person in this world, have our strengths and weaknesses. Unfortunately, our weaknesses sometimes look like laziness or defiance to those around us. Learn to self-advocate! Plan ahead for those contingencies and don’t let setbacks get you down! Some of us have tried for so long to mask our poor planning skills, we haven’t learned to tell people what we need or what we struggle with.
44Define Your ‘Why Can’t I Just...’ Moments Learn to resist impulses and distractions!Don’t stop to see what is on television, IT’S A TRAP, you will become transfixed!Don’t answer the phone when you are starting your homework, ANOTHER TRAP, you will forget to get back to the initial task! (Once it is out of our mind, it is done in our mind!)Don’t forget to refer to your list and cross off completed items, BUT NOT UNTIL YOU HAVE ACTUALLY FINISHED! If you cross it off before you are done and you get distracted or interrupted, you will not remember to go back!
45Define Your ‘Why Can’t I Just...’ Moments Does a task, responsibility, or action need to be a part of your life, or are you simply conforming to peer pressure or others’ expectations?If you truly dislike or are unable to accomplish a task, talk with your parents or teachers, maybe a more tolerable task could be substituted? (Example, if writing is laborious and you can’t seem to get your thoughts on paper, maybe a teacher would let you tape record your report or your parent could transcribe it for you? Maybe you could work with graphic organizers to develop your story, rather than facing a blank sheet of paper, which can be very overwhelming!)Maybe there is a way to creatively problem-solve or make the task less time-consuming and more interesting!
46Self monitoring system If used correctly, a day planner works for you…you don’t work for it! A day planner is a tool, which will help you in life and relationships with others. Less stress and more success is a life long goal that is obtainable for us! Make sure to plan for enjoyable activities as well. Keep a list of positive to-do’s and balance your day accordingly!Adapted from: Nadeau, K. G. (2006). Using a day planner as a life planner. Attention Deficit Disorder Association: The World’s Leading Adult ADHD Organization. Retrieved 11/14/06 from:
47Student appears unmotivated to complete in-class work Assess skills in order to determine is “unmotivated” is masking skill deficits (it’s much better to look bad/bored than stupid)Allow students to earn points or rewards for work completion (offer incentive/reinforcement survey to determine what is the most motivating)Use cooperative learning and hands on projects as social motivatorsWeave high-interest topics into lessons to capture student attentionOffer choices regarding where they sit, who they sit by, what books to use for an assignment, or the type of ‘product’ the agree to produce (e.g., writing essay, newspaper article, letter to the editor, political speech, etc.)Allow class to ‘vote’ on structuring the lesson (i.e., spend class period working in pairs in the computer lab or in classroom in larger groups finding key concepts in text or lecture notes)
48Student appears unable to complete in-class work Survey student skills to determine strengths and deficitsAdjust instruction to match skill levelAdjust groupingsProvide strategies/review sheetsProvide highlighted or restructured notesRewrite or reword testsProvide materials at his or her skill levelTarget and practice key skills taught in courseProvide the student answer keys to self-check independent workProvide glossaries with key course terms and their definitionsClasswork & homework: Trouble student problems from start to finish. Retrieved Dec. 21, 2006 from:
49Student does not participate in large-group discussion Establish rules of no teasing for incorrect answersEncourage differing viewpointsAllow ‘think time’ and draw names for responses (allow for ‘passes’ if a student is very shy and doesn’t know an answer)Set up ‘life-line’ options (if a student doesn’t know an answer, can call on someone he or she thinks might know, the student using the life-line option must then judge the answer to be correct or incorrect)Allow students to refer to notes or text for answers
50Students refusing to comply with teacher requests to do work Survey for skill deficits (never assume)Keep it positive, provide optionsCreate a reward systemAvoid power struggles!Classwork & homework: Trouble student problems from start to finish. Retrieved Dec. 21, 2006 from:
51Power Struggle management There is no one way to manage a power struggle. Each power struggle situation is unique. A power struggle occurs when the participants work hard to win in order NOT TO LOSE! Students often evade responsibility by making the power struggle the focus.
52Power struggles are most difficult to manage when: There is a lack of clarity in expectations and consequences (be explicit, do not engage in arguing or negotiation, be firm and calm)There are time pressures (be aware of limitations, don’t lose your temper, remain calm, have a plan ahead time, follow through without anger or irritation—the student ‘wins’ if they can push buttons!)The disruption factor is HIGH (talking out during lecture or etc.)People are angry, fearful, or frustratedVulnerabilities are unguardedEveryone can be pulled into a power struggle (I’ll win to prevent a loss)Vulnerabilities vary (Students can be very sensitive to being controlled by authority figures)Students initiating power struggles have an expert ability to find another’s vulnerabilities (button pushers)
53Managing power struggles: Ready yourself and the situation!Be vigilant of high risk times (transition, when asked to do work, or other)Build a ‘positive bank account’ with known power strugglers:Frequent use of positive, encouraging statementsQuick positive comments to diffuse embarrassing or conflicting situationsIdentify shared interestsModel self-controlBe aware of and in charge of your vulnerabilities (don’t get sucked in)Maintain a positive perspective about the student (find likeable qualities and focus on them)Maintain self-control at all times! (Never let them see you sweat)Respond with PurposeEncourage thoughtful choice rather than compliance (would you like to use a pen or pencil to complete this worksheet?)Call attention to student behavior in a simple wayHead off power struggle when warning signs are observed
54WARNING SIGNS Of an IMMINENT POWER STRUGGLE Shut downStop workingDepressed/flat or angry affectRefusal to talk or respond to questionsBreak pencil or jam into paper/deskStubborn or sullen lookComments under the breath
55EARLY INTERVENTION Identify the feelings Offer help Give options available (break, different activity, etc.)Predict a positive choice and its consequencesRefer to success contractOffer ladder of success (talk it out)Walk away while student makes choiceCross-talk with other staff (may be part of predicting)
56AVOID Pointed fingers, arms crossed, loud voice, etc. Creating a visual block (can the student easily make an escape? Don’t crowd or corner)Emotional expressions of anger or frustration (tense body language, intense looks, scowls)Touching in the attempt to lead or direct
57MANAGE THE AUDIENCE FACTOR Never call attention (call student aside or discuss quietly)Arrange a “cool off” time and spaceAcknowledge feelings (If I thought someone was bossing-pushing me around, I might get angry too)Use active listening, paraphrasingMaintain a friendly attitude (Being friendly is different from giving in)Use humor in a timely manner (no sarcasm, just diffusing comments)
58TAKE CARE OF YOURSELFDischarge unpleasant emotions constructively (discuss, decide, dismiss)Use friends and colleagues as supportsAdopt the attitude, “If it didn’t go as I hoped, I will have another opportunity to try again.”
59Students seeking help when he or she can do the work Premack principleKeep interactions brief and business likeReinforce only when working independentlyPost essential information that students will likely need and direct students to it to find the answers on their ownPraise for independent workClasswork & homework: Trouble student problems from start to finish. Retrieved Dec. 21, 2006 from:
60TattlingThe best way to promote a bullying school environment is to outlaw tattling Lempke, E. (2006), Personal communication.Define what is a ‘tattle’ and what is ‘reporting’
61Redefine & Reduce Tattling Establish and accepting classroom atmosphereCollect personal information about each child and use the information in quick informal exchanges utilizing body language to show warmth and acceptance (eye contact, extending palm of hands outward when greeting students, standing in close proximity)Let the students know you as a person, not just a teacherTry to spend some individual time with every student every dayGive honest praiseEstablish a risk-free classroom, mistakes are OK!Discourage one-upmanship or competition if possibleEncourage class support and cooperative learningDefine what is an appropriate ‘report’ and what is a ‘tattle’
62Defining a tattleUse class discussion to define (hurting self, hurting others, hurting property, hurting emotionally or physically, etc.)Let the class defineProvide Hassle Log or other reporting device (if it’s worth a report, it’s worth completing the paperwork!)
63Example Hassle Log Name:. Date:. Time: Example Hassle Log Name: Date: Time: Setting: Classroom __ Bathroom __ Meals __ Art __ Music __ Gym __ Playground __ Bus__ Hall __ Other __What happened:Somebody teased me __Somebody took my stuff __Somebody told me to do something bad __Somebody did something I didn’t like __I did something wrong __Somebody started fighting with me __Somebody started fighting with someone _Other __Who was that somebody:Another student __An adult __Staff __ Teacher __What did you do:Hit back __ Told adult __Ran away __ Walked away __Yelled __ Talked it out __Cried __ Told peer __Broke something __ Ignored __Was restrained __ Used anger __Used my words __ Cried __How did you handle yourself:Poorly Not too well OK Good GreatHow angry were you:Burning Mad Really Mad A little MadNot Mad At All
64Relieving Frustration in students Warning signs: biting nails or lips, grimacing, muttering, mumbling, appearing flushed, barking at neighborsStrategies to preventAntiseptic bounce: sending student from the room on an errand or taskProvide quiet spot, calming area, sensory options for self-calmIdentify system for notificationStrategies for working with emotionally unpredictable students. Retrieved 12/30/06 from:
65DefensivenessWarning signs: lashing out verbally, withdrawal (emotional or physical), challenging authority, refusal to comply, blamingStrategies to prevent or reduceAvoid “who is right” or “who is in charge” discussionsApproach student privately, make eye contact, address in a quiet, calm toneUse humor to defuse the conflictProvide ‘forced choice’ options (would you like to work at your desk or in a quieter area)Strategies for working with emotionally unpredictable students. Retrieved 12/30/06 from:
66AggressionWarning signs: verbal threats, abusive language, threatening posture, striking outStrategies to react to, or respondRemove other studentsAdopt a supportive stance (slightly to the side and at a 45 to 90 degree angleRespect ‘personal space’-a least a leg length awayMaintain calm tone and body postureDo NOT block the door (if possible)Deliver clear statement of choices
67Clear statement of choices Two clear choices with consequence. Give ‘teacher preferred’ choice last-“John, you can refuse to participate and written up, or you can start the assignment and not be written up.”If fails to comply within a reasonable amount of time, clearly restate what you want the student to do (calmly). Include a time limit and location.“I want you to return to your desk now and begin your work.”If fails to comply again, enforce alternative consequences as selected and discussed earlier.Strategies for working with emotionally unpredictable students. Retrieved 12/30/06 from:
68Self-monitoring Natural step toward independence Shift from external to internal locus of controlBehavioral or academicAll ages and disabilitiesSelect and define target behaviorRecord, analyze, set target goal, strategies, evaluate, reinforceSeries on highly effective practices-self monitoring: Teaching students to self-monitor their academic &behavioral performances. Darden College of Education retrieved 12/30/06 from.odu.edu/esse/research/series/monitor.shtml
69Managing transitionsUsing effective transitions help teachers to minimize disruptions and behaviorsMost successful are rapid and have clear ends and beginningsClear routines for everyday tasksPost and adhere to daily scheduleProvide visual or auditory signals or cues to notify students transition is comingProvide ‘wait time’ for those who struggle with change in routine or transition activitiesUse proximity, reinforcers, and/or incentivesWatch for signs of frustration, defensiveness, withdrawal, etc. and address appropriately (diffuse)Successfully managing student transitions. Series on highly effective practices-Transitions. Darden College of Education. Retrieved 12/20/06from
70Teaching Social Problem Solving “Students with disabilities and behavior problems often have difficulty dealing with interpersonal problems, which further limit their academic and social success at school.”Successfully managing student transitions. Series on highly effective practices-Transitions. Darden College of Education. Retrieved 12/20/06from
71Teaching Social Problem Solving State the problemGather information from self and othersThink of possible solutionsEvaluate each solutionChoose the best, mutually acceptable solutionTry out the solutionEvaluate the solutionDecide what to do next timeSuccessfully managing student transitions. Series on highly effective practices-Transitions. Darden College of Education. Retrieved 12/20/06 from
72Social SkillsStudents with social skills deficits experience long term consequences: cycles of failure, peer rejection, poor school outcomes, and adjustment problems as adults (Successfully managing student transitions. Series on highly effective practices-Transitions. Darden College of Education. Retrieved 12/20/06 fromExplicit instruction-social skills/strategies games tend to be too subtle for some studentsPeer mentors - positive social interactions with facilitation and practice opportunitySchool-wide/Class-wideThoughts and feelings activities-understanding feelings of self and others
73Explicit Social Skills training Clearly introduce and define the skillModel the skill and sequence of stepsRehearse, role play, practiceReview in natural setting or created opportunityProvide individual feedbackPromote, remind, reinforceTeach students to ‘self talk’ –prompt, encourage, and reinforce themselves
74PlanningPlanning is a mental process by which the individual determines, selects, applies, and evaluates solutions to the problem.Select relevant information in the taskSelect relevant prior knowledgeUse a strategy to approach a taskMonitor progressDevelop new strategies when necessaryNaglieri, J.A. & Pickering, E.B. (2003). Helping children learn: Intervention handouts for use in school and at home. Baltimore, MA: Brookes Publishing, p. 37.
75Planning Example This Week’s Spelling Words Here are the words for Friday’s test:foundgroundmouthcouchouchcountroundoutshoutHow will you learn the words?Start todayStudy 15 minutes per dayStudy with a friendWrite each word 10 timesMake flashcardsMake a word search puzzleMake a copy to tape to your desk and study during free timeWhat other ways to learn these words can you think of? Write them down!_______________________________Naglieri, J.A. & Pickering, E.B. (2003). Helping children learn: Intervention handouts for use in school and at home. Baltimore, MA: Brookes Publishing, p. 37.
76Classroom problems related to planning Disorganized completion of assignmentsFailure to switch strategies according to the demands of the workFailure to correct misinterpretation of what is readInconsistent application of spelling or math rules when solving problemsFailure to devise or use aids when completing workLack of preparedness with materials needed to do workUncertainty about how or where to start school workNaglieri, J.A. & Pickering, E.B. (2003). Helping children learn: Intervention handouts for use in school and at home. Baltimore, MA: Brookes Publishing, p. 38..
77Teaching planning skills Teach about plans and strategy useDiscuss the importance and how it will benefit them (organization, finishing on time, being successful, etc.)Encourage development, use and evaluating their own strategiesAsk questions related to planning, such as:
78Questions related to planning How did you do the task?Did you make a plan before beginning?What did you do last time? Did it work?Why did you do it that way?These are hard, how could we make them easier?Is there a better way, or a different way to do this?What strategy worked for you?Do you think you will do it differently next time?How can you check your work?Naglieri, J.A. & Pickering, E.B. (2003). Helping children learn: Intervention handouts for use in school and at home. Baltimore, MA: Brookes Publishing, p. 37.