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Chapter 40: Basic Principles of Form and Function

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1 Chapter 40: Basic Principles of Form and Function
Mrs. Valdes AP Biology

2 Overview: Diverse Forms, Common Challenges
Anatomy: study of biological form of organism Physiology: study of biological functions organism performs Comparative study of animals reveals form and function closely correlated… you know this!

3 Concept 40.1: Animal form and function correlated at ALL levels of organization
Body plans evolved and determined by genome Physical Constraint: ability to perform certain actions depends on animal’s shape, size, and environment Evolutionary convergence reflects different species’ adaptations to similar environmental challenge Physical laws impose constraints on animal size and shape Environment Exchange: animal’s size and shape directly affect how it exchanges energy and materials with its surroundings occurs as substances dissolved in aqueous medium diffuse and are transported across cells’ plasma membranes Single-celled: protist living in water has sufficient surface area of plasma membrane to service its entire volume of cytoplasm Multicellular organisms: some have sac body plan; body walls only two cells thick, facilitating diffusion of materials More complex organisms: highly folded internal surfaces for exchanging materials Vertebrates: space between cells filled with interstitial fluid allows for movement of material into and out of cells A complex body plan helps animal in variable environment to maintain stable internal environment

4 Hierarchical Organization of Body Plans
Cells > Tissues > Organs > Organ System Tissues classified into four main categories: epithelial, connective, muscle, and nervous

5 Epithelial Tissue Epithelial tissue: covers outside of body and lines organs and cavities within body contains cells closely joined shape of epithelial cells: cuboidal (like dice) columnar (like bricks on end) squamous (like floor tiles) arrangement of epithelial cells: simple (single cell layer) stratified (multiple tiers of cells) pseudostratified (a single layer of cells of varying length)

6 Connective Tissue mainly binds and supports other tissues
contains sparsely packed cells scattered through extracellular matrix matrix consists of fibers in liquid, jellylike, or solid foundation Types of connective tissue fiber: Collagenous fibers provide strength and flexibility Elastic fibers stretch and snap back to original length Reticular fibers join connective tissue to adjacent tissues Connective cells: Fibroblasts: secrete the protein of extracellular fibers Macrophages: involved in immune system Fibers and foundation combine to form six major types of connective tissue: Loose connective tissue: binds epithelia to underlying tissues; holds organs in place Cartilage: strong and flexible support material Fibrous connective tissue: found in tendons (attach muscles to bones) and ligaments (connect bones at joints) Adipose tissue: stores fat for insulation and fuel Blood: composed of blood cells and cell fragments in blood plasma Bone: mineralized and forms skeleton

7 Connective Tissue Loose connective tissue Cartilage Fibrous connective
Fig. 40-5c Connective Tissue Collagenous fiber Loose connective tissue Chondrocytes Cartilage 120 µm 100 µm Elastic fiber Chondroitin sulfate Nuclei Fat droplets Fibrous connective tissue Adipose tissue 30 µm 150 µm Figure 40.5 Structure and function in animal tissues Osteon White blood cells Bone Blood 700 µm 55 µm Central canal Plasma Red blood cells

8 Loose connective tissue
Fig. 40-5d Collagenous fiber 120 µm Figure 40.5 Structure and function in animal tissues Elastic fiber Loose connective tissue

9 Fibrous connective tissue
Fig. 40-5e Nuclei 30 µm Figure 40.5 Structure and function in animal tissues Fibrous connective tissue

10 Bone Osteon 700 µm Central canal Fig. 40-5f
Figure 40.5 Structure and function in animal tissues Central canal Bone

11 Cartilage Chondrocytes 100 µm Chondroitin sulfate Fig. 40-5g
Figure 40.5 Structure and function in animal tissues Chondroitin sulfate Cartilage

12 Adipose tissue Fat droplets 150 µm Fig. 40-5h
Figure 40.5 Structure and function in animal tissues Adipose tissue

13 Blood White blood cells 55 µm Plasma Red blood cells Fig. 40-5i
Figure 40.5 Structure and function in animal tissues Plasma Red blood cells Blood

14 Muscle Tissue consists of long cells called muscle fibers, which contract in response to nerve signals Types: Skeletal muscle: or striated muscle, responsible for voluntary movement Smooth muscle: responsible for involuntary body activities Cardiac muscle: responsible for contraction of the heart

15 Muscle Tissue Skeletal muscle Cardiac muscle Smooth muscle Multiple
Fig. 40-5j Muscle Tissue Multiple nuclei Muscle fiber Sarcomere Skeletal muscle Nucleus 100 µm Intercalated disk 50 µm Cardiac muscle Figure 40.5 Structure and function in animal tissues Smooth muscle Nucleus Muscle fibers 25 µm

16 Skeletal muscle Multiple nuclei Muscle fiber Sarcomere 100 µm
Fig. 40-5k Multiple nuclei Muscle fiber Sarcomere Figure 40.5 Structure and function in animal tissues 100 µm Skeletal muscle

17 Smooth muscle Nucleus Muscle fibers 25 µm Fig. 40-5l
Figure 40.5 Structure and function in animal tissues 25 µm Smooth muscle

18 Cardiac muscle Nucleus Intercalated disk 50 µm Fig. 40-5m
Figure 40.5 Structure and function in animal tissues Nucleus Intercalated disk 50 µm Cardiac muscle

19 Nervous Tissue senses stimuli and transmits signals throughout the animal Contains: Neurons: nerve cells, that transmit nerve impulses Glial cells, or glia: help nourish, insulate, and replenish neurons

20 Coordination and Control
Depend on endocrine system and nervous system Endocrine system: transmits hormones to receptive cells throughout body via blood hormone may affect one or more regions throughout body Hormones relatively slow acting, but can have long-lasting effects Nervous system: transmits information between specific locations information conveyed depends on a signal’s pathway NOT type of signal Nerve signal transmission is FAST Nerve impulses received by neurons, muscle cells, and endocrine cells

21 Concept 40.2: Feedback control loops maintain internal environment in many animals
Animals manage internal environment by regulating or conforming to external environment Regulator: uses internal control mechanisms to moderate internal change in face of external, environmental fluctuation Conformer: allows internal condition to vary with certain external changes

22 Homeostasis Maintain “steady state” or internal balance regardless of external environment Humans: body temperature, blood pH, and glucose concentration Mechanisms: moderate changes in internal environment For given variable, fluctuations above/below set point serve as stimulus that are detected by sensor and trigger response response returns the variable to the set point Feedback Loops: Negative feedback Helps return variable to either normal range or a set point Most homeostatic control systems function by negative feedback, where buildup of the end product shuts the system off Positive feedback occur in animals, but do not usually contribute to homeostasis Set points and normal ranges change with age or show cyclic variation Acclimatization: homeostasis can adjust to changes in external environment

23 Concept 40.3: Homeostatic processes for thermoregulation involve form, function, & behavior
Thermoregulation: process by which animals maintain internal temperature within tolerable range Endotherm: animal generates heat by metabolism; Ex: birds and mammals active at a greater range of external temperatures more energetically expensive Homeotherm: body temperature relatively constant Ectotherm: animal gains heat from external sources; include most invertebrates, fishes, amphibians, and non-avian reptiles tolerate greater variation in internal temperature, while endotherms are Poikilotherm: body temperature varies with its environment,

24 Balancing Heat Loss & Gain
Organisms exchange heat by : conduction convection radiation evaporation Heat regulation in mammals involves integumentary system: skin hair nails General adaptations: Insulation Circulatory adaptations Cooling by evaporative heat loss Behavioral responses Adjusting metabolic heat production

25 Insulation Major thermoregulatory adaptation in mammals and birds
Ex: Skin, feathers, fur, and blubber Reduce heat flow between an animal and its environment

26 Circulatory Adaptations
Regulation of blood flow near body surface significantly affects thermoregulation Many endotherms and some ectotherms alter amount of blood flowing between body core and skin Vasodilation: blood flow in skin increases increase heat loss Vasoconstriction: blood flow in skin decreases decrease heat loss Countercurrent exchange: important mechanism for reducing heat loss; transfer heat between fluids flowing in opposite directions arrangement of blood vessels in marine mammals and birds Some bony fishes and sharks Many endothermic insects use to maintain high temperature in thorax

27 Cooling by Evaporative Heat Loss
Animals lose heat through evaporation of water in sweat Panting increases cooling effect in birds and many mammals Sweating/bathing moistens skin, helping cool animal down

28 Behavioral Responses Endotherms and ectotherms use behavioral responses to control body temperature Terrestrial invertebrates have postures to minimize or maximize absorption of solar heat Ex: Dragonfly obelisk to minimize sun exposure

29 Adjusting Metabolic Heat Production
Some animals regulate body temperature by adjusting rate of metabolic heat production Heat production increased by muscle activity like moving or shivering Some ectotherms shiver to increase body temperature

30 Acclimatization in Thermoregulation
Birds and mammals vary insulation to acclimatize to seasonal temperature changes Temps subzero: some ectotherms produce “antifreeze” compounds to prevent ice formation in their cells Thermoregulation: controlled by hypothalamus Hypothalamus: triggers heat loss or heat generating mechanisms Fever: result of change to set point for biological thermostat

31 Concept 40.4: Energy requirements related to animal size, activity, and environment
Bioenergetics: overall flow and transformation of energy in an animal determines how much food animal needs relates to animal’s size, activity, and environment Energy Allocation and Use Animals harvest chemical energy from food Food  ATP  Cellular Work After needs of staying alive met, remaining food molecules used in biosynthesis Biosynthesis: includes body growth and repair synthesis of storage material such as fat production of gametes

32 Quantifying Energy Use
Metabolic rate: amount of energy animal uses in unit of time One way to measure: determine amount of oxygen consumed OR carbon dioxide produced affected by many factors besides whether an animal is an endotherm or ectotherm size activity Basal metabolic rate (BMR): metabolic rate of endotherm at rest at “comfortable” temperature Standard metabolic rate (SMR): metabolic rate of ectotherm at rest at specific temperature Both rates assume nongrowing, fasting, and nonstressed animal Ectotherms have lower metabolic rates than endotherms of comparable size

33 Size and Metabolic Rate
Metabolic rate per gram inversely related to body size among similar animals Higher metabolic rate of smaller animals higher oxygen delivery rate, breathing rate, heart rate, and greater (relative) blood volume, compared with a larger animal

34 Activity and Metabolic Rate
Maximum metabolic rate animal can sustain inversely related to duration of the activity

35 Energy Budgets Different species use energy and materials in different ways depending on environment Use of energy is partitioned to BMR (or SMR), activity, thermoregulation, growth, and reproduction

36 Torpor and Energy Conservation
Torpor: physiological state in which activity is low and metabolism decreases enables animals to save energy while avoiding difficult and dangerous conditions Hibernation: long-term torpor; adaptation to winter cold and food scarcity Estivation: summer torpor; enables animals to survive long periods of high temperatures and scarce water supplies Daily torpor: exhibited by many small mammals and birds; seems adapted to feeding patterns

37 You should now be able to:
Distinguish among the following sets of terms: collagenous, elastic, and reticular fibers; regulator and conformer; positive and negative feedback; basal and standard metabolic rates; torpor, hibernation, estivation, and daily torpor Relate structure with function and identify diagrams of the following animal tissues: epithelial, connective tissue (six types), muscle tissue (three types), and nervous tissue Compare and contrast the nervous and endocrine systems Define thermoregulation and explain how endotherms and ectotherms manage their heat budgets Describe how a countercurrent heat exchanger may function to retain heat within an animal body Define bioenergetics and biosynthesis Define metabolic rate and explain how it can be determined for animals

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