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Basic Principles of Animal Form and Function Chapter 40
Form and Function Anatomy- biological form of an organism. Physiology- biological function.
Size and Shape Development of body plan and shape is programmed by specific genes. Ex: homeotic genes, HOX genes
Exchange with Environment Interstitial Fluid- fills spaces between cells of most mammals- helps exchange fluids between cells. Circulatory Fluid (blood)- also enables cells to obtain nutrients and get rid of wastes.
Organization of Body Plans Cells – Tissues – Organs - Organ Systems
Major Tissue Types Epithelial Connective Muscle Nervous
Epithelial Tissue Epithelial Tissue- covers the outside of the body and lines organs and cavities within the body. Function as a barrier against mechanical injury, pathogens, and fluid loss.
Connective Tissue Connective Tissue- cells scattered in an extracellular matrix. Holds tissue and organs together and in place.
Muscle Tissue Skeletal Muscle- attached to bones by tendons. Striated. Contractile units called sarcomeres are formed by the fusion of many muscle fibers, thus cells contain multiple nuclei. Responsible for voluntary movements. Smooth Muscle- lacks striations. Found in walls of digestive tract, bladder, arteries, etc. Responsible for involuntary movements. Cardiac Muscle- forms the contractile wall of the heart. Striated. Fibers connected with intercalated disks that help synchronize muscle contraction.
Nervous Tissue Nervous Tissue- functions in the receipt, processing, and transmission of information. Nerve cells = neurons; supporting cells = glial cells- both work together to transmit nerve impulses.
Warm Up Exercise 1.What are the four major tissue types? 2.What are the three types of muscle tissues?
Communication and Signaling Two major systems are responsible for communication between cells: Endocrine System- signaling molecules called hormones are released into the blood stream by endocrine cells. Nervous System- neurons transmit signals- called nerve impulses
Communication and Signaling Endocrine- signal travels everywhere via blood- response is limited to cells that have a receptor for the specific hormone. Transmission may take several seconds, but duration may last hours. Nervous- signal travels along axon to specific location. Transmission is extremely fast and duration is extremely short. Only four types of cells can receive nerve impulses- other neurons, muscle, endocrine and exocrine cells.
Communication and Signaling Endocrine- gradual changes that affect the entire body. Ex: growth and development, reproduction, metabolic processes, digestion. Nervous- directs immediate and rapid response to the environment. Ex: controls fast locomotion and behavior.
Regulating and Conforming Regulator- uses internal mechanisms to control internal change in the face of external fluctuation. Conformer- allows its internal condition to change in accordance with external changes in the variable.
Homeostasis Homeostasis- a constant internal environment. Includes pH, temperature, salinity, fluids, gases, nutrients, etc.
Feedback Control and Homeostasis Negative Feedback- reduces the stimulus. Brings the body back to normal and helps restore homeostasis. Positive Feedback- amplifies the stimulus. Not typically involved in homeostasis.
Alterations in Homeostasis Regulated Changes: puberty, menstrual cycle, etc. Circadian Rhythm- physiological changes that occur approx. every 24 hours.
Alterations to Homeostasis Acclimatization- gradual process in which an animal adjust to changes in its external environment.
Exit Slip Suppose you are standing at the edge of a cliff and suddenly slip- you barely manage to keep your balance and avoid falling. As your heart races, you feel a burst of energy; due in part to the surge of blood into dilated vessels in your muscles and an upward spike in the level of glucose in your blood. Why might you expect that this “fight-or-flight” response requires bot the nervous and endocrine systems?
Warm Up Exercise 3.Give three major differences between endocrine and nervous system signaling. 4.Explain the difference between a regulator and conformer.
Thermoregulation Thermoregulation- the process by which animals maintain body temperature within their optimal range. Endothermic- warmed mostly be heat generated by metabolism. Maintain a stable body temperature even in the face of large fluctuations in the environment. Ex: birds and mammals Ectothermic- gain most of their heat from external sources. Need to conserve less food for energy, can tolerate larger fluctuates in internal temperature. Many adjust temperature behaviorally (finding shade or sun). Ex: amphibians, lizards, snakes, turtles, many fishes, and most invertebrates
Variation in Temperature Poikilotherm- variable body temperature Homeotherm- constant body temperature
Heat Loss and Gain Organisms exchange heat using 4 methods: radiation, evaporation, convection, and conduction. Heat is always transferred from the higher temperature to the colder temperature.
Heat Loss and Gain Integumentary System- outer covering of body (skin, hair, nails, and claws/hooves). Helps with thermoregulation by providing insulation. Brown fat- specialized for rapid heat production Circulatory System- provides a route for heat flow and plays a significant role in thermoregulation. Vasoconstriction vs. Vasodilation
Countercurrent Exchange Countercurrent Exchange- the transfer of heat between fluids (mostly blood) that are flowing in opposite directions to maximize the rate of heat exchange.
Thermoregulation Thermoregulation is controlled by a region in of the brain called the hypothalamus.
Bioenergetics- the overall flow and transformation of energy in an animal. Metabolic Rate/Metabolism- sum of all the energy used in a chemical reactions over time. Basal Metabolic Rate- minimum metabolic rate of a nongrowing endotherm at rest, with an empty stomach and not experiencing stress. Standard Metabolic Rate- rate of a fasting, nonstressed ectotherm at rest at a particular temperature. Torpor- a physiological state of decreased activity and metabolism. An adaptation that enables animals to save energy while avoiding difficult and dangerous situations.