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CHAPTER 40 BASIC PRINCIPLES OF ANIMAL FORM AND FUNCTION 1.

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Presentation on theme: "CHAPTER 40 BASIC PRINCIPLES OF ANIMAL FORM AND FUNCTION 1."— Presentation transcript:

1 CHAPTER 40 BASIC PRINCIPLES OF ANIMAL FORM AND FUNCTION 1

2 REVIEW: 1.anatomy—study of an organism’s structure 2.physiology—study of biological function You Must Know: 1.Four types of tissues and their general functions 2.The importance of homeostasis and examples 3.How feedback systems control homeostasis, and one example of positive feedback and one example of negative feedback 2

3 I. Concept 40.1: Animal form and function are correlated at all levels of organization Size and shape affect the way an animal interacts with its environment Many different animal body plans have evolved and are determined by the genome The ability to perform certain actions depends on an animal ’ s shape, size, and environment Evolutionary convergence reflects different species ’ adaptations to a similar environmental challenge Physical laws impose constraints on animal size and shape 3

4 Fig Exchange 0.15 mm (a) Single cell 1.5 mm (b) Two layers of cells Exchange Mouth Gastrovascular cavity

5 Multicellular organisms with a sac body plan have body walls that are only two cells thick, facilitating diffusion of materials More complex organisms have highly folded internal surfaces for exchanging materials Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

6 Fig cm Nutrients Digestive system Lining of small intestine Mouth Food External environment Animal body CO 2 O2O2 Circulatory system Heart Respiratory system Cells Interstitial fluid Excretory system Anus Unabsorbed matter (feces) Metabolic waste products (nitrogenous waste) Kidney tubules 10 µm 50 µm Lung tissue

7 Fig. 40-4a Nutrients Mouth Digestive system Anus Unabsorbed matter (feces) Metabolic waste products (nitrogenous waste) Excretory system Circulatory system Interstitial fluid Cells Respiratory system Heart Animal body CO 2 O2O2 Food External environment

8 Fig. 40-4b Lining of small intestine 0.5 cm

9 Fig. 40-4c Lung tissue 50 µm

10 Fig. 40-4d Kidney tubules 10 µm

11 In vertebrates, the space between cells is filled with interstitial fluid, which allows for the movement of material into and out of cells A complex body plan helps an animal in a variable environment to maintain a relatively stable internal environment Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

12 Most animals are composed of specialized cells organized into tissues that have different functions Tissues make up organs, which together make up organ systems Hierarchical Organization of Body Plans Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

13 A.Tissues 1. Are defined as groups of cell that have a common structure and function 2. Can be organized into functional units called organs 3. Groups of organs that work together make up organ systems (Ex: digestive, circulatory, and excretory systems) 13

14 B. Four types of tissue: 1. Epithelial Tissue Occurs in sheets of tightly packed cells Covers the body, lines the organs and acts as a protective barrier One side of the epithelium is always bound to an underlying surface called the basement membrane (basal surface) Always has one free surface facing either air or a fluid environment 14

15 It contains cells that are closely joined The shape of epithelial cells may be cuboidal (like dice), columnar (like bricks on end), or squamous (like floor tiles) The arrangement of epithelial cells may be simple (single cell layer), stratified (multiple tiers of cells), or pseudostratified (a single layer of cells of varying length) Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

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18 2.Connective Tissue Mainly supports and binds other tissues Consists of scattered cells within an extracellular matrix Ex: cartilage, tendons, ligaments, bone, adipose tissue, and blood 18

19 There are three types of connective tissue fiber, all made of protein: – Collagenous fibers provide strength and flexibility – Elastic fibers stretch and snap back to their original length – Reticular fibers join connective tissue to adjacent tissues Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

20 Connective tissue contains cells, including – Fibroblasts that secrete the protein of extracellular fibers – Macrophages that are involved in the immune system Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

21 In vertebrates, the fibers and foundation combine to form six major types of connective tissue: – Loose connective tissue binds epithelia to underlying tissues and holds organs in place – Cartilage is a strong and flexible support material – Fibrous connective tissue is found in tendons, which attach muscles to bones, and ligaments, which connect bones at joints Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

22 – Adipose tissue stores fat for insulation and fuel – Blood is composed of blood cells and cell fragments in blood plasma – Bone is mineralized and forms the skeleton Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

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27 3. Muscle Tissue Responsible for nearly all types of body movement Muscle filaments are made of the proteins actin (thin) and myosin (thick) Muscle fibers contract when stimulated by a nerve impulse Most abundant tissue in most animals Three types of muscle: skeletal (voluntary), cardiac (involuntary—makes up heart), smooth (involuntary) 27

28 Muscle Tissue It is divided in the vertebrate body into three types: – Skeletal muscle, or striated muscle, is responsible for voluntary movement – Smooth muscle is responsible for involuntary body activities – Cardiac muscle is responsible for contraction of the heart Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

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33 4. Nervous Tissue Functional unit is the neuron (nerve cell) Senses stimuli and transmits signals from one part of the body to another part Includes other neurons, glands, muscles and the brain 33

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35 C. For animal survival tissue, organs, and organ systems must act in a coordinated manner 1. The Endocrine System Involves glands that produce chemicals called hormones that are released into the bloodstream and carried to specific glands A hormone may affect one or more regions throughout the body Hormones are relatively slow acting, but can have long- lasting effects 35

36 C. For animal survival tissue, organs, and organ systems must act in a coordinated manner 2. The Nervous System Neurons transmit information between specific locations Only three type of cells receive nerve impulses: neuron, muscle cells, and endocrine cells 36

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38 II. Concept 40.2 A.Homeostasis Process by which animals maintain a relatively constant internal environment, even when the external environment changes significantly “steady state” B. Homeostatic control systems function by having a set point (body temperature), sensors to detect any stimulus above or below the set point, and a physiological response that helps return the body to its set point 38

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40 C. Negative Feedback Animal response to the stimulus in a way that reduces the stimulus Ex: in response to exercise, the body temperature rises, which initiates sweating to cool the body D.Positive Feedback Involves a change in some variable that triggers mechanisms that amplify rather than reverse the change Very unstable Ex: uterine contractions 40

41 Alterations in Homeostasis Set points and normal ranges can change with age or show cyclic variation Homeostasis can adjust to changes in external environment, a process called acclimatization Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

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43 III. Concept 40.3 A.Thermoregulation—refers to how animals maintain their internal temperature within a tolerable range B.Endotherms (warm blooded) Ex: mammals and birds Are warmed mostly by heat generated by metabolism C.Ectotherms (cold blooded) Ex: most invertebrates, fishes, amphibians, reptiles Generate relatively little metabolic heat, gaining most of their heat from external sources 43

44 In general, ectotherms tolerate greater variation in internal temperature, while endotherms are active at a greater range of external temperatures Endothermy is more energetically expensive than ectothermy The body temperature of a poikilotherm varies with its environment, while that of a homeotherm is relatively constant Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

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47 Balancing Heat Loss and Gain Organisms exchange heat by four physical processes: conduction, convection, radiation, and evaporation Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

48 Fig RadiationEvaporation ConvectionConduction

49 Heat regulation in mammals often involves the integumentary system : skin, hair, and nails Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

50 Fig Epidermis Dermis Hypodermis Adipose tissue Blood vessels Hair Sweat pore Muscle Nerve Sweat gland Oil gland Hair follicle

51 Five general adaptations help animals thermoregulate: –Insulation –Circulatory adaptations –Cooling by evaporative heat loss –Behavioral responses –Adjusting metabolic heat production Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

52 Insulation Insulation is a major thermoregulatory adaptation in mammals and birds Skin, feathers, fur, and blubber reduce heat flow between an animal and its environment Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

53 Regulation of blood flow near the body surface significantly affects thermoregulation Many endotherms and some ectotherms can alter the amount of blood flowing between the body core and the skin In vasodilation, blood flow in the skin increases, facilitating heat loss In vasoconstriction, blood flow in the skin decreases, lowering heat loss Circulatory Adaptations Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

54 D. Countercurrent Exchange This is the method by which many birds and mammals reduce heat loss Heat transfer involves antiparallel arrangement of blood vessels such that warm blood from the core of the animal, en route to the extremities, transfers heart to colder blood returning form the extremities. Heat that would have been lost to the environment is conserved in the blood returning to the core of the animals 54

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56 Cooling by Evaporative Heat Loss Many types of animals lose heat through evaporation of water in sweat Panting increases the cooling effect in birds and many mammals Sweating or bathing moistens the skin, helping to cool an animal down Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

57 Both endotherms and ectotherms use behavioral responses to control body temperature Some terrestrial invertebrates have postures that minimize or maximize absorption of solar heat Behavioral Responses Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

58 Fig

59 Adjusting Metabolic Heat Production Some animals can regulate body temperature by adjusting their rate of metabolic heat production Heat production is increased by muscle activity such as moving or shivering Some ectotherms can also shiver to increase body temperature Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

60 Concept 40.4: Energy requirements are related to animal size, activity, and environment Bioenergetics is the overall flow and transformation of energy in an animal It determines how much food an animal needs and relates to an animal ’ s size, activity, and environment Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

61 Energy Allocation and Use Animals harvest chemical energy from food Energy-containing molecules from food are usually used to make ATP, which powers cellular work After the needs of staying alive are met, remaining food molecules can be used in biosynthesis Biosynthesis includes body growth and repair, synthesis of storage material such as fat, and production of gametes Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

62 Fig Organic molecules in food External environment Animal body Digestion and absorption Nutrient molecules in body cells Carbon skeletons Cellular respiration ATP Heat Energy lost in feces Energy lost in nitrogenous waste Heat Biosynthesis Heat Cellular work

63 Metabolic rate is the amount of energy an animal uses in a unit of time One way to measure it is to determine the amount of oxygen consumed or carbon dioxide produced Quantifying Energy Use Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

64 Fig

65 Minimum Metabolic Rate and Thermoregulation Basal metabolic rate (BMR) is the metabolic rate of an endotherm at rest at a “ comfortable ” temperature Standard metabolic rate (SMR) is the metabolic rate of an ectotherm at rest at a specific temperature Both rates assume a nongrowing, fasting, and nonstressed animal Ectotherms have much lower metabolic rates than endotherms of a comparable size Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

66 Metabolic rates are affected by many factors besides whether an animal is an endotherm or ectotherm Two of these factors are size and activity Influences on Metabolic Rate Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

67 Size and Metabolic Rate Metabolic rate per gram is inversely related to body size among similar animals Researchers continue to search for the causes of this relationship The higher metabolic rate of smaller animals leads to a higher oxygen delivery rate, breathing rate, heart rate, and greater (relative) blood volume, compared with a larger animal Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

68 Activity greatly affects metabolic rate for endotherms and ectotherms In general, the maximum metabolic rate an animal can sustain is inversely related to the duration of the activity Activity and Metabolic Rate Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

69 Different species use energy and materials in food in different ways, depending on their environment Use of energy is partitioned to BMR (or SMR), activity, thermoregulation, growth, and reproduction Energy Budgets Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

70 Torpor and Energy Conservation Torpor is a physiological state in which activity is low and metabolism decreases Torpor enables animals to save energy while avoiding difficult and dangerous conditions Hibernation is long-term torpor that is an adaptation to winter cold and food scarcity Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

71 Estivation, or summer torpor, enables animals to survive long periods of high temperatures and scarce water supplies Daily torpor is exhibited by many small mammals and birds and seems adapted to feeding patterns Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

72 Fig. 40-UN1 Homeostasis Stimulus: Perturbation/stress Response/effector Control center Sensor/receptor


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