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Basic Principles of Animal Form and Function

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1 Basic Principles of Animal Form and Function
Ch. 40 Basic Principles of Animal Form and Function

2 Diverse Forms, Common Challenges
Correlation between form and function functions are properties that emerge from the specific shape and order of body parts Capacity to respond to stimuli long term – adaptation short term – physiological responses Anatomy Biological form of an animal Physiology Biological function

3 Evolution of Animal Size and Shape
Animals forms limited by… Strength Diffusion Movement Heat exchange Maximum size

4 Exchange with the Environment
Imposes limitations on body plans and number of cells Plasma membrane Rate of exchange for nutrients, wastes, and gases are proportional to SA

5 Exchange with the Environment
Larger animals have adaptations of their exchange surface that are extensively branched or folded Interstitial fluid Fills spaces between cells Link exchange surfaces to body cells

6 Hierarchical Organization of Body Plans
Atoms  molecules  supramolecular structures  cell Cell  tissues  organs  organ systems

7 Hierarchical Organization of Body Plans
Function correlates with structure in tissues Tissue groups of cells with common structure and function 4 Main Types… Epithelial Tissue Connective Tissue Nervous Tissue Muscle Tissue

8 Epithelial Tissue Sheets of tightly packed cells tight junctions Functions barrier against mechanical injury, invading microbes, and fluid loss free surface exposed to air or fluid Underneath bound to connective tissue by a basement membrane may be specialized for absorption or excretion

9 Types of Epithelial Tissue
Simple epithelium Stratified epithelium Pseudostratified Columnar Cuboidal Squamous Transitional Glandular

10 Connective Tissue Collagenous (thick) Elastic (thin and flexible)
Sparse cell population scattered through an extensive extracellular matrix Consists of 3 types of fibers Collagenous (thick) Elastic (thin and flexible) Reticular

11 Connective Tissue Functions holds organs in place
attaches epithelia to underlying tissues Cell types fibroblasts macrophages

12 Types of Connective Tissue
Loose connective Adipose Fat Fibrous connective Tendons (muscle to bone) Ligaments (bone to bone) Cartilage chondrocytes Bone osteocytes Blood RBC, WBC, platelets

13 Nervous Tissue Senses stimuli and transmits signals from one part of the animal to another Neuron nerve cell specialized to conduct an impulse or biochemical signal

14 Nervous Tissue – Neuron Structure
Cell Body Dendrites extensions that conduct impulses to the cell body Axon extensions that transmit impulses away from the cell body

15 Muscle Tissue Most abundant type in animals
Long, excitable cells capable of contraction Contain contractile microfilaments actin and myosin

16 3 Types of Muscle Tissue Skeletal voluntary movements striated Cardiac
contractile wall of heart Light striations, intercalated disks involuntary Smooth internal organs No striations

17 Organs

18 Organs Systems are interdependent
an organism is a living whole greater than the sum of its parts Organ systems several organs with separate functions that act in a coordinated manner Mesenteries sheets that suspend the organs

19 Hierarchical Organization of Body Plans

20 Hierarchical Organization of Body Plans

21 Coordination & Control
Coordination requires communication between different body locations Endocrine system Hormones from endocrine system reach all locations via the blood Slow acting but effects are long lasting Nervous system Fast acting but only last a fraction of a second Neurons transmit nerve impulses between specific locations in the body 4 types of cells can receive impulses: other neurons, muscle, endocrine, and exocrine cells

22 Regulating and Conforming
Regulator Uses internal mechanisms to control internal change in the face of external fluctuation Conformer Its internal condition changes in accordance with environmental variables Can be both

23 Homeostasis “Steady state” Mechanisms Set point Stimulus Sensor
Maintaining a set variable Stimulus Fluctuations in the variable above or below the set point Sensor Receptor of fluctuation Response Physiological activity that helps return the variable to the set point

24 Feedback Control in Homeostasis
Negative Feedback Control that reduces the stimulus Positive Feedback Amplifies the stimulus Alterations Possible to change under certain circumstances Circadian rhythm Acclimitization Gradual process by which an animal adjust to changes in its external environment

25 Negative Feedback

26 Negative Feedback – Body Temperature

27 Positive Feedback

28 Thermoregulation Process by which animals maintain an internal temperature within a tolerable range Endothermic Warmed mostly by metabolism Ectothermic Gain most of their heat from the environment Poikilotherm vs. Homeotherm

29 Balancing Heat Loss and Gain
Animal’s ability to control its exchange of heat with the environment Integumentary system Four physical processes Radiation Evaporation Convection Conduction

30 Balancing Heat Loss and Gain
Insulation Reduces heat flow b/w animal and environment Fluffing of feathers, line fur/feathers with oil, fat, goose bumps Circulatory Adaptations Vasodilation and vasoconstriction Countercurrent exchange

31 Balancing Heat Loss and Gain
Cooling by Evaporative Heat Loss Sweating, panting, bathing Behavioral Responses Hibernation, migration, basking, huddling Adjust Metabolic Heat Production Thermogenesis (moving, shivering) Nonshivering thermogenesis Brown fat

32 Acclimitization in Thermoregulation
Seasonal changes Adjustments at cellular level Production of different enzymes Proportion of saturated and unsaturated lipids “Antifreeze” compounds in membranes

33 Physiological Thermostats and Fever
Hypothalamus Group of cells function as a thermostat Negative Feedback

34 Energy Requirements Related to Animal Size, Activity, and Environment
Bioenergetics Overall flow and transformation of energy in an animal Age, sex, size Body temp. Environmental temp. Food quality and quantity Activity level Amount of available O2 Hormonal balance Time of day

35 Metabolic Rates Amount of energy an animal uses ina unit of time
Metabolic rate is inversely proportional to body size smaller animals consume more calories per gram higher breathing rates more blood volume higher heart rates

36 Metabolic Rates Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR)
Minimum metabolic rate of a nongrowing endotherm that is at rest, has an empty stomach, and is not experiencing stress Standard Metabolic Rate Metabolic rate of a fasting, nonstressed ectotherm at rest at a particular temperature

37 Energy Budgets

38 Torpor and Energy Conservation
Physiological state of decreased activity and metabolism Animals can save energy while avoiding dangerous/difficult situations Daily torpor Hibernation Estivation

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