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Chapter 40 Introduction to Animal Structure and Function.

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1 Chapter 40 Introduction to Animal Structure and Function

2 Overview: Diverse Forms, Common Challenges Anatomy is the study of the biological form of an organism Physiology is the study of the biological functions an organism performs (a) Tuna (b) Penguin (c) Seal

3 Exchange with the Environment An animal’s size and shape directly affect how it exchanges energy and materials with its surroundings Multicellular organisms with a sac body plan have body walls that are only two cells thick, facilitating diffusion of materials More complex organisms have highly folded internal surfaces for exchanging materials In vertebrates, the space between cells is filled with interstitial fluid, which allows for the movement of material into and out of cells

4 Exchange 0.15 mm (a) Single cell 1.5 mm (b) Two layers of cells Exchange Mouth Gastrovascular cavity

5 0.5 cm Nutrients Digestive system Lining of small intestine Mouth Food External environment Animal body CO 2 O2O2 Circulatory system Heart Respiratory system Cells Interstitial fluid Excretory system Anus Unabsorbed matter (feces) Metabolic waste products (nitrogenous waste) Kidney tubules 10 µm 50 µm Lung tissue

6 Most animals are composed of specialized cells organized into tissues that have different functions Tissues make up organs, which together make up organ systems Hierarchical Organization of Body Plans

7 Tissue Structure and Function- Epithelial Tissue Epithelial tissue covers the outside of the body and lines the organs and cavities within the body Shape: cuboidal (like dice), columnar (like bricks on end), or squamous (like floor tiles) Arrangement: simple (single cell layer), stratified (multiple tiers of cells), or pseudostratified (a single layer of cells of varying length)

8 Epithelial Tissue Cuboidal epithelium Simple columnar epithelium Pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium Stratified squamous epithelium Simple squamous epithelium

9 Tissue Structure and Function- Connective Tissue Connective tissue mainly binds and supports other tissues – Collagenous fibers provide strength and flexibility – Elastic fibers stretch and snap back to their original length – Reticular fibers join connective tissue to adjacent tissues

10 Connective tissue contains cells, including – Fibroblasts that secrete the protein of extracellular fibers – Macrophages that are involved in the immune system Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

11 Loose connective tissue binds epithelia to underlying tissues and holds organs in place Cartilage is a strong and flexible support material Fibrous connective tissue is found in tendons (attach muscles to bones) and ligaments (connect bones at joints)

12 Adipose tissue stores fat for insulation and fuel Blood is composed of blood cells and cell fragments in blood plasma Bone is mineralized and forms the skeleton

13 Connective Tissue Collagenous fiber Loose connective tissue Elastic fiber 120 µm Cartilage Chondrocytes 100 µm Chondroitin sulfate Adipose tissue Fat droplets 150 µm White blood cells 55 µm Plasma Red blood cells Blood Nuclei Fibrous connective tissue 30 µm Osteon Bone Central canal 700 µm

14 Loose connective tissue

15 Fibrous connective tissue

16 Bone

17 Cartilage

18 Adipose tissue

19 Blood

20 Tissue Structure and Function- Muscle Tissue – Skeletal muscle, or striated muscle, is responsible for voluntary movement – Smooth muscle is responsible for involuntary body activities – Cardiac muscle is responsible for contraction of the heart

21 Muscle Tissue 50 µm Skeletal muscle Multiple nuclei Muscle fiber Sarcomere 100 µm Smooth muscle Cardiac muscle Nucleus Muscle fibers 25 µm Nucleus Intercalated disk

22 Skeletal muscle Multiple nuclei Muscle fiber Sarcomere 100 µm

23 Smooth muscle Nucleus Muscle fibers 25 µm

24 NucleusIntercalated disk Cardiac muscle 50 µm

25 Tissue Structure and Function- Nervous Tissue Nervous tissue senses stimuli and transmits signals throughout the animal Nervous tissue contains: – Neurons, or nerve cells, that transmit nerve impulses – Glial cells, or glia, that help nourish, insulate, and replenish neurons

26 Glial cells Nervous Tissue 15 µm Dendrites Cell body Axon Neuron Axons Blood vessel 40 µm

27 Dendrites Cell body Axon 40 µm Neuron

28 Glial cells Axons Blood vessel Glial cells and axons 15 µm

29 Stimulus Hormone Endocrine cell Signal travels everywhere via the bloodstream. Blood vessel Response (a) Signaling by hormones Stimulus Neuron Axon Signal Signal travels along axon to a specific location. Signal Axons Response (b) Signaling by neurons Coordination and Control

30 Homeostasis Organisms use homeostasis to maintain a “steady state” or internal balance regardless of external environment In humans, body temperature, blood pH, and glucose concentration are each maintained at a constant level

31 Response: Heater turned off Stimulus: Control center (thermostat) reads too hot Room temperature decreases Set point: 20ºC Room temperature increases Stimulus: Control center (thermostat) reads too cold Response: Heater turned on

32 Feedback Loops in Homeostasis Negative feedback -returns a variable to either a normal range or a set point, buildup of the end product shuts the system off Positive feedback- the end product accelerates the systems further

33 Endothermic animals generate heat by metabolism; more active; energy expensive Ectothermic animals gain heat from external sources; less active; less energy needed Endothermy and Ectothermy

34 (a) A walrus, an endotherm (b) A lizard, an ectotherm

35 Quantifying Energy Use Metabolic rate is the amount of energy an animal uses in a unit of time Basal metabolic rate (BMR) is the metabolic rate of an endotherm at rest at a “comfortable” temperature Standard metabolic rate (SMR) is the metabolic rate of an ectotherm at rest at a specific temperature Ectotherms have much lower metabolic rates than endotherms of a comparable size

36 Size and Metabolic Rate Metabolic rate per gram is inversely related to body size among similar animals The higher metabolic rate of smaller animals leads to a higher oxygen delivery rate, breathing rate, heart rate, and greater (relative) blood volume, compared with a larger animal

37 Shrew Harvest mouse Mouse Ground squirrel Rat Cat Dog Sheep Human Horse Elephant Body mass (kg) (log scale) BMR (L O 2 /hr) (log scale) (a) Relationship of BMR to body size 10 –3 10 –2 10 –

38 –1 10 –2 10 – Body mass (kg) (log scale) (b) Relationship of BMR per kilogram of body mass to body size BMR (L O2/hr) (per kg) Shrew Harvest mouse Mouse Rat Ground squirrel Cat Sheep Dog Human Horse Elephant

39 Different species use energy and materials in food in different ways, depending on their environment Use of energy is partitioned to BMR (or SMR), activity, thermoregulation, growth, and reproduction Energy Budgets

40 Annual energy expenditure (kcal/hr) 60-kg female human from temperate climate 800,000 Basal (standard) metabolism Reproduction Thermoregulation Growth Activity 340,000 4-kg male Adélie penguin from Antarctica (brooding) 4, kg female deer mouse from temperate North America 8,000 4-kg female eastern indigo snake EndothermsEctotherm

41 Annual energy expenditure (kcal/hr) 60-kg female human from temperate climate 800,000 Basal (standard) metabolism Reproduction Thermoregulation Growth Activity

42 Reproduction Thermoregulation Activity Basal (standard) metabolism 4-kg male Adélie penguin from Antarctica (brooding) Annual energy expenditure (kcal/yr) 340,000

43 Reproduction Thermoregulation Basal (standard) metabolism Activity 4, kg female deer mouse from temperate North America Annual energy expenditure (kcal/yr)

44 Reproduction Growth Activity Basal (standard) metabolism 4-kg female eastern indigo snake 8,000 Annual energy expenditure (kcal/yr)


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