2Functional Divisions of the Cerebral Cortex Cortical Area FunctionPrefrontal Cortex Problem Solving, Emotion, Complex ThoughtMotor Coordination of Association complex Cortex movementVisual Complex Association processing of Area visual informationWernicke’s Area Language ComprehensionSpeech Center Speech production and Articulation
3The Sources of Emotions Researchers believe that the frontal lobes and the amygdala are among the most important brain structures affecting emotions.Feelings of happiness and pleasure are linked to the prefrontal cortex.Anger, fear, sadness, and other negative emotions are linked to the amygdala.
4THREE KEY STRATEGIES Identify how to intervene early in an escalation. Identify environmental factors that can be manipulated.Identify replacement behaviors that can be taught & serve similar function.
5The MODEL High Peak Acceleration De-escalation Agitation Trigger Calm RecoveryLow
61. Calm Student is cooperative. Accepts corrective feedback. Follows directives.Sets personal goals.Ignores distractions.Accepts praise.
7Calm Intervention is focused on prevention. Assess problem behavior TriggersFunctionAcademic & behavioral learning historyArrange for high rates of successful academic & social engagements.Use positive reinforcement.Teach social skills.Problem solvingRelaxation strategySelf-managementCommunicate positive expectations.
82. Trigger Student experiences a series of unresolved conflicts. Repeated failuresFrequent correctionsInterpersonal conflictsTimelinesLow rates of positive reinforcement
9Trigger Intervention is focused on prevention & redirection. Consider function of problem behavior in planning/implementing response.Remove from or modify problem context.Increase opportunities for success.Reinforce what has been taught.
103. Agitation Student exhibits increase in unfocused behavior. Off-task Frequent start/stop on tasksOut of seatTalking with othersSocial withdrawal
11Agitation Intervention is focused on reducing anxiety. Consider function of problem behavior in planning/implementing response.Make structural/environmental modifications.Provide reasonable options & choices.Involve in successful engagements.
124. Acceleration Student displays focused behavior. Provocative High intensityThreateningPersonal
13Acceleration Intervention is focused on safety. Remember: Escalations & self-control are inversely related.Escalation is likely to run its course.
14Acceleration Remove all triggering & competing maintaining factors. Follow crisis prevention procedures.Establish & follow through with bottom line.Disengage from student.
155. PeakStudent is out of control & displays most severe problem behavior.Physical aggressionProperty destructionSelf-injuryEscape/social withdrawalHyperventilation
16Peak Intervention is focused on safety. Procedures like acceleration phase, except focus is on crisis intervention
176. De-escalationStudent displays confusion but with decreases in severe behavior.Social withdrawalDenialBlaming othersMinimization of problem
18De-escalation Intervention is focused on removing excess attention. Don’t nag.Avoid blaming.Don’t force apology.Consider function of problem behaviorEmphasize starting anew.
197. RecoveryStudent displays eagerness to engage in non-engagement activities.Attempts to correct problem.Unwillingness to participate in group activities.Social withdrawal & sleep.
20Recovery Follow through with consequences for problem behavior. Positively reinforce any displays of appropriate behavior.Intervention is focused on re-establishing routines activities.
21RecoveryDebriefPurpose of debrief is to facilitate transition back to program….not further negative consequenceDebrief follows consequences for problem behavior.Goal is to increase more appropriate behavior.
22Recovery Problem solving example: What did I do? Why did I do it? What could I have done instead?What do I have to do next?Can I do it?
23The MODEL High Peak Acceleration De-escalation Agitation Trigger Calm RecoveryLow
24THREE KEY STRATEGIES Identify how to intervene early in an escalation. Identify environmental factors that can be manipulated.Identify replacement behaviors that can be taught & serve similar function.