1Enhance understanding & ways of escalating behavior sequences PURPOSEEnhance understanding & ways of escalating behavior sequencesUnderstanding the Escalation CycleBest practice ConsiderationsYour action planning how to share with staff back home*
2OUTCOMES Identification of how to intervene early in an escalation. Identification of environmental factors that can be manipulated.Identification of replacement behaviors that can be taught (& serve same function as problem).
3ALL SOME FEW Tertiary Prevention: Specialized CONTINUUM OF IndividualizedSystems for Students with High-Risk BehaviorCONTINUUM OFSCHOOL-WIDEINSTRUCTIONAL &POSITIVE BEHAVIORSUPPORTFEW~5%Secondary Prevention:Specialized GroupSystems for Students with At-Risk Behavior~15%SOMEPrimary Prevention:School-/Classroom-Wide Systems forAll Students,Staff, & SettingsSWPBIS organizes its behavioral interventions along a continuum of behavior support.Using a multi-tiered system of support SWPBIS starts by providing the most appropriate and effective behavioral interventions for all students (Primary), and then provides more specialized and intensive interventions for those students whose behaviors do not respond (secondary/tertiary).ALL~80% of Students*
4ASSUMPTIONS Behavior is learned (function) Behavior is escalated through successive interactions (practice)Behavior can be changed through an instructional approachLawful – Experimentally Studied!*
5Reasons Students Commonly Misbehave Unsure of expectationsUnsure how to exhibit expected behaviorUnaware he/she is engaged in the misbehaviorMisbehavior is providing student with desired outcome:Gain somethingEscape something*
6Teacher Jason Jason, please turn in your assignment. What assignment? The assignment you didn’t finish during class.I finished it.Great, please turn it in now.I don’t have it with me now.You have a choice: turn it in or do it again.You never believe me.I guess you’ve made the choice to do it again.Make me.That’s disrespect…go to the office.F_____ you!Moves closer…& puts hand on J. shoulder.Pulls away, glares, & raises fist as if to strike.
7The MODEL What we know is that people follow a predictable pattern. We know from this pattern how to minimize safety risks for students and staffWe know how to support the person going through the cycle best by knowing when and how to respondThe MODELHighLowCalmPeakDe-escalationRecoveryAccelerationAgitationTrigger*
8The MODELHighThe model considers these factors. These will vary from person to person.Low
13Calm – Student is Cooperative This is where positive and valuing relationships are built and where you teach skills needed to function successfully in challenging situations.Accepts corrective feedbackFollows directivesSets personal goalsIgnores distractionsAccepts praise*
14Calm – Intervention is prevention Arrange for high rates of successful academic & social engagementsTeach social skillsProblem solvingRelaxation strategySelf-managementCommunicate positive expectationsAssess problem behavior**Use positive reinforcement**Praise has been shown to increase on task behavior and decrease problem behavior (Gootman, 2001)*
15Teaching ProceduresRemember telling isn't teaching and being told is not the same as being taught. We have to take all our procedures and TIPP them.T- Teach itI- Imprint it by modelingP- Practice it with themP- Praise it when you see it with behavior specific praise
17Trigger – Series of Unresolved Conflicts Repeated failuresFrequent correctionsInterpersonal conflictsLow rates of positive reinforcementRecognize – Refocus - ReassureThis is where signs of early stress need to be recognized. This is the best time to refocus the person’s attention away from the stress.*
18Trigger – Prevention & Redirection Consider function of problem behaviorRemove from or modify problem contextIncrease opportunities for successReinforce what has been taught*
19When I respond what do I say? Stay Calm – Quiet, Breath, Count, Depersonalize, Take a secondBe empathicDon’t judge or discount feelingsClarify messagesAsk reflective questions, use silence and restatementsRefocus/redirect/reassureAvoid power struggleSand box power struggle – Cadence vs. Rhythm: Power struggle “I don’t want to do that” hmmmmm – why don’t you tell me about that*
20That didn’t work: Setting Limits Limits are not the same as issuing an ultimatumLimits are not threatsLimits offer choices with consequencesThe purpose of limits is to teach, not to punishStudents begin to understand their actions, positive or negative, have consequencesProvides structure for good decision makingSetting limits is more about listening than talkingSimple/clear, reasonable, enforceable
21Tips to Setting LimitsBe positive. Setting limits is healthy. It does not have to be done in a rude or hostile way. Firmness does not mean intimidation.Give reasonable choices with consequences (not delivered in a threatening manner)Allow time for the student to make a choiceBe prepared to enforce your consequencesKeep power struggles to a minimum. Set limits by using impersonal, measurable criteria (this is where routines and procedures come in to play). It is also helpful to post schedules, daily independent work assignments, and lists of rules and consequences on walls and bulletin boards for students to refer to. Having things in writing helps us “Be the director not the bad guy”Request behavior that is incompatible with the undesirable behavior. Many times it will be far more effective to say "Hands at your sides!" instead of "Don't hit!“
23Agitation – Unfocused Behavior Off-taskFrequent start/stop on tasksOut of seatTalking with othersSocial withdrawal*
24Agitation – Reduce Anxiety Consider function of problem behaviorMake structural/ environmental modificationsProvide reasonable options & choicesInvolve in successful engagementsMove Student AwayNow is the time to have the student leave the anxiety producing event if possible*
25Ongoing Confrontation Remember:Escalated students are not rational!The more escalated they are the calmer you have to be, the less you sayEscalation is not the time to establish your authorityIf you need to or are able to move student away from peers or peers away from studentsAllow release if you are ableDistraction is allowedDo not go deal with consequences until the situation is over and the student is rational againPhysical response only at a last resort
27Acceleration – Displays Focused Behavior DeliberateHigh intensityThreateningPersonalMinimize Talking-Model CalmThis is not a time to ask the person to make choices. Model calming strategies.*
28The Paradoxical response When students engage in confrontation they expect what they usually get: anger, ultimatums and more confrontationThe paradoxical response: The calmer you get the more difficult it will be for the student to escalate the situationBe aware of your body and your nonverbals
29NonverbalsBodyPostureStanceLocationFacial expressionEasiestVoiceToneVolumespeedMost difficultEyesWhere I am lookingBreathingHow I am breathingCross culturalNonverbals: we need to make our nonverbal expectations meet our verbal expectationsThe single most powerful nonverbal skill is the PAUSE
30NonverbalsBody:PostureStanceLocationArms to side or,Arms parallel to floor or,One arm up and one down, andWeight EvenThe message-Confident-Believe-ExpectCPI supportive stanceGestures: Palms up vs. Palms downWhen giving a request: Stop moving!When you pause hold your gesturesVoice/Paraverbal:-Tone-Volume-Speed (cadence)The more agitated the student is the less you say-Low and slow-Flat voice-Accompany brief request with a nonverbal when you can (language, processing, etc)-NO Sarcasm “Are you ready to work now?”Face/Eyes-Make sure the message on your face matches your intent-Look where you gesturePower struggle “I don’t want to do that” hmmmmm – why don’t you tell me about that*
31Acceleration Intervention is focused on safety Remember:Escalations & self-control are inversely relatedEscalation is likely to run its course*
32Acceleration Remove all triggering & competing maintaining factors Follow crisis prevention proceduresDisengage from student*
37De-escalation Student displays confusion but with decreases in severe behavior Focus is on calmingAt this point the person should be encouraged to relax rather than make any decisions. Do not try to process here.Social withdrawalDenialBlaming othersMinimization of problem*
38De-escalation Intervention is focused on removing excess attention Avoid naggingAvoid blamingDon’t force apologyConsider functionEmphasize starting anew*
39Approaches to Calming by Function Obtain AttentionAvoidanceObtain materials/activities•Sit with student•Allow venting and be an active listener•Go through calming strategies with the student•Have student take your hands, look you in the eye, breath in, count to 5, and breath out•You actively approach student at regular intervals to check in•Walk and talk•Sensory with attention•Little to no talking, no touching, more visual than verbal•Provide a visual of calming strategies•Have a calming bag that has independent calming tasks•Provide student the power to let you know when he or she is ready•Sensory without attention•Have student part of developing the plan•Provide choices in calming-Where to sit-What to do
40Calming Strategies Five point scale Counting Visualization BreathingBreath in to count of 5, hold for count of 5, exhale for count of 5Smell the soupYoga BreathingPut tongue behind your two front teethClose your mouth an breathe in through your nose to the count of four slowlyBreathe out for the count of fourRepeat 10 timesFive point scaleCountingVisualizationCalming tools
43Recovery Engage in Non-engagement Activities Attempts to correct problemUnwillingness to participate in group activitiesSocial withdrawal & sleep*
44Recovery Follow through with consequences Positively reinforce any appropriate behaviorIntervention is focused on re- establishing routine activities*
45Recovery - DebriefPurpose of debrief is to facilitate transition back to program…not a further negative consequenceDebrief follows consequences for problem behaviorGoal is to increase more appropriate behavior*
46Recovery Processing & Problem Solving Why do we process?Teaches students toAccurately identify the problemAllows students to practice problem solving skillsProvides an opportunity to practice and re-teach behavioral skillsAllows us to make a plan and get students back into class where they belong*
47Problem Solving Conferences: why? Teach, model, and practice problem solving skillsLooks for the underlying cause of the problemPosition the teacher and student as collaborators:Instead of a one-way process, it is a 2-way conversation that involves asking the child what to doAvoid one-size fits allThis is NOT A PUNISHMENT
48Teacher Language During Conferencing Don’t assume you know what happenedMost kids need support through this processNon-judgmentalUse a matter-of-fact toneKeep teacher talk to a minimumUse words and phrases that empower the child to reflect: Do more asking than tellingUse positive language that helps the child see a new way – help child reflect on what we WANT to see
49Problem Solving Conference 1. Define the problemWhat the student noticed, what the teacher noticedWhat were you doing? What did it look like?2. Evaluate the consequences of the students choice:How did it affect the classroom? How did it affect you?3. Define and re-teach the social or behavioral expectations related to the context or situationDefine, Model, practice (role-play)“What is the expectation when….”, “How can we appropriately…”Show me what that would look like…4. Help student set a goal or make a planBrainstorm some alternate solutions to the problem“Next time ____ happens I will….”5. Implement the planContract, re-entry to classroom, discussion with teacher6. Check back or have the teacher check back
50Consequences vs. Punishment Logical Consequences:“the three Rs”Related to the misbehaviorRespectful of the childReasonable for the child to do as well an in proportion to the misbehaviorPunishmentPunishment may make behavior worsePunishment only addresses the symptoms of the problem, not the reason behind itPunishment is often about the adult not the studentThere is a place for punishment, but it has to be part of an overall plan and should be logical
51Considerations for selecting responses to problem behavior Will the response decrease the problem behavior?Will the response teach appropriate behavior?Will the response have unwanted side effects?Can the response be applied across settings?Is the response age-appropriate and respectful?Does the response offer a good contextual fit?It the response matched to the cognitive understanding of the student?
52The MODEL High Peak Acceleration De-escalation Agitation Trigger Calm LowCalmPeakDe-escalationRecoveryAccelerationAgitationTrigger*
53THREE KEY STRATEGIES Intervene early Identify environmental factors that can be manipulatedIdentify replacement behaviors that can be taught (& serve same function as problem).
54Teaching Compliance Students must Be fluent at expected behavior. Be taught conditions under which the expected behavior is required.Have multiple opportunities for high rates of successful academic & social engagement.Receive or experience frequent & positive acknowledgments when expected behavior is exhibited.
55Prevention means Teachers must… Have student’s attention, before presenting the directive or making a request.Give clear, specific, positively stated directives.Provide frequent & positive acknowledgments when expected behavior is exhibited.Have established & taught consequence procedures for repeated noncompliance.
56Website that may be helpful… www.pbisworld.com *
57Escalating Behavior - Action Planning Review features & steps of “Escalating Behavior” modelDiscuss extent to which escalating behavior is or could be issue in your schoolIdentify how you will teach staff back home about addressing escalating behaviorWrite down 3 “big ideas” from your team discussion to share in the “give one get one” networking activity.