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Enhance understanding & ways of escalating behavior sequences

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Presentation on theme: "Enhance understanding & ways of escalating behavior sequences"— Presentation transcript:

0 Managing Escalating BehaviorIndividual Tier II

1 Enhance understanding & ways of escalating behavior sequences
PURPOSE Enhance understanding & ways of escalating behavior sequences Understanding the Escalation Cycle Best practice Considerations Your action planning how to share with staff back home *

2 OUTCOMES Identification of how to intervene early in an escalation.
Identification of environmental factors that can be manipulated. Identification of replacement behaviors that can be taught (& serve same function as problem).

3 ALL SOME FEW Tertiary Prevention: Specialized CONTINUUM OF
Individualized Systems for Students with High-Risk Behavior CONTINUUM OF SCHOOL-WIDE INSTRUCTIONAL & POSITIVE BEHAVIOR SUPPORT FEW ~5% Secondary Prevention: Specialized Group Systems for Students with At-Risk Behavior ~15% SOME Primary Prevention: School-/Classroom- Wide Systems for All Students, Staff, & Settings SWPBIS organizes its behavioral interventions along a continuum of behavior support. Using a multi-tiered system of support SWPBIS starts by providing the most appropriate and effective behavioral interventions for all students (Primary), and then provides more specialized and intensive interventions for those students whose behaviors do not respond (secondary/tertiary). ALL ~80% of Students *

4 ASSUMPTIONS Behavior is learned (function)
Behavior is escalated through successive interactions (practice) Behavior can be changed through an instructional approach Lawful – Experimentally Studied! *

5 Reasons Students Commonly Misbehave
Unsure of expectations Unsure how to exhibit expected behavior Unaware he/she is engaged in the misbehavior Misbehavior is providing student with desired outcome: Gain something Escape something *

6 Teacher Jason Jason, please turn in your assignment. What assignment?
The assignment you didn’t finish during class. I finished it. Great, please turn it in now. I don’t have it with me now. You have a choice: turn it in or do it again. You never believe me. I guess you’ve made the choice to do it again. Make me. That’s disrespect…go to the office. F_____ you! Moves closer…& puts hand on J. shoulder. Pulls away, glares, & raises fist as if to strike.

7 The MODEL What we know is that people follow a predictable pattern.
We know from this pattern how to minimize safety risks for students and staff We know how to support the person going through the cycle best by knowing when and how to respond The MODEL High Low Calm Peak De-escalation Recovery Acceleration Agitation Trigger *

8 The MODEL High The model considers these factors. These will vary from person to person. Low

9 The MODEL High Low

10 The MODEL High Low

11 The MODEL High Low

12 The MODEL High Low CALM ✱✱✱✱ *

13 Calm – Student is Cooperative
This is where positive and valuing relationships are built and where you teach skills needed to function successfully in challenging situations. Accepts corrective feedback Follows directives Sets personal goals Ignores distractions Accepts praise *

14 Calm – Intervention is prevention
Arrange for high rates of successful academic & social engagements Teach social skills Problem solving Relaxation strategy Self-management Communicate positive expectations Assess problem behavior **Use positive reinforcement **Praise has been shown to increase on task behavior and decrease problem behavior (Gootman, 2001) *

15 Teaching Procedures Remember telling isn't teaching and being told is not the same as being taught. We have to take all our procedures and TIPP them. T- Teach it I- Imprint it by modeling P- Practice it with them P- Praise it when you see it with behavior specific praise

16 The MODEL High Low TRIGGER ✱✱ *

17 Trigger – Series of Unresolved Conflicts
Repeated failures Frequent corrections Interpersonal conflicts Low rates of positive reinforcement Recognize – Refocus - Reassure This is where signs of early stress need to be recognized. This is the best time to refocus the person’s attention away from the stress. *

18 Trigger – Prevention & Redirection
Consider function of problem behavior Remove from or modify problem context Increase opportunities for success Reinforce what has been taught *

19 When I respond what do I say?
Stay Calm – Quiet, Breath, Count, Depersonalize, Take a second Be empathic Don’t judge or discount feelings Clarify messages Ask reflective questions, use silence and restatements Refocus/redirect/reassure Avoid power struggle Sand box power struggle – Cadence vs. Rhythm: Power struggle “I don’t want to do that” hmmmmm – why don’t you tell me about that *

20 That didn’t work: Setting Limits
Limits are not the same as issuing an ultimatum Limits are not threats Limits offer choices with consequences The purpose of limits is to teach, not to punish Students begin to understand their actions, positive or negative, have consequences Provides structure for good decision making Setting limits is more about listening than talking Simple/clear, reasonable, enforceable

21 Tips to Setting Limits Be positive. Setting limits is healthy. It does not have to be done in a rude or hostile way. Firmness does not mean intimidation. Give reasonable choices with consequences (not delivered in a threatening manner) Allow time for the student to make a choice Be prepared to enforce your consequences Keep power struggles to a minimum. Set limits by using impersonal, measurable criteria (this is where routines and procedures come in to play). It is also helpful to post schedules, daily independent work assignments, and lists of rules and consequences on walls and bulletin boards for students to refer to. Having things in writing helps us “Be the director not the bad guy” Request behavior that is incompatible with the undesirable behavior. Many times it will be far more effective to say "Hands at your sides!" instead of "Don't hit!“


23 Agitation – Unfocused Behavior
Off-task Frequent start/stop on tasks Out of seat Talking with others Social withdrawal *

24 Agitation – Reduce Anxiety
Consider function of problem behavior Make structural/ environmental modifications Provide reasonable options & choices Involve in successful engagements Move Student Away Now is the time to have the student leave the anxiety producing event if possible *

25 Ongoing Confrontation
Remember: Escalated students are not rational! The more escalated they are the calmer you have to be, the less you say Escalation is not the time to establish your authority If you need to or are able to move student away from peers or peers away from students Allow release if you are able Distraction is allowed Do not go deal with consequences until the situation is over and the student is rational again Physical response only at a last resort


27 Acceleration – Displays Focused Behavior
Deliberate High intensity Threatening Personal Minimize Talking-Model Calm This is not a time to ask the person to make choices. Model calming strategies. *

28 The Paradoxical response
When students engage in confrontation they expect what they usually get: anger, ultimatums and more confrontation The paradoxical response: The calmer you get the more difficult it will be for the student to escalate the situation Be aware of your body and your nonverbals

29 Nonverbals Body Posture Stance Location Facial expression Easiest Voice Tone Volume speed Most difficult Eyes Where I am looking Breathing How I am breathing Cross cultural Nonverbals: we need to make our nonverbal expectations meet our verbal expectations The single most powerful nonverbal skill is the PAUSE

30 Nonverbals Body: Posture Stance Location Arms to side or, Arms parallel to floor or, One arm up and one down, and Weight Even The message -Confident -Believe -Expect CPI supportive stance Gestures: Palms up vs. Palms down When giving a request: Stop moving! When you pause hold your gestures Voice/Paraverbal: -Tone -Volume -Speed (cadence) The more agitated the student is the less you say -Low and slow -Flat voice -Accompany brief request with a nonverbal when you can (language, processing, etc) -NO Sarcasm “Are you ready to work now?” Face/Eyes -Make sure the message on your face matches your intent -Look where you gesture Power struggle “I don’t want to do that” hmmmmm – why don’t you tell me about that *

31 Acceleration Intervention is focused on safety
Remember: Escalations & self-control are inversely related Escalation is likely to run its course *

32 Acceleration Remove all triggering & competing maintaining factors
Follow crisis prevention procedures Disengage from student *

33 The MODEL High Low PEAK *

34 PeakStudent is out of control & displays most severe problem behavior
Physical aggression Property destruction Self-injury Escape/social withdrawal Hyperventilation *

35 PeakIntervention is focused on safety
This is not a time to talk, direct, or problem solve. The main concern is safety. Follow the school or student crisis plan. Focus is on crisis intervention *


37 De-escalation Student displays confusion but with decreases in severe behavior
Focus is on calming At this point the person should be encouraged to relax rather than make any decisions. Do not try to process here. Social withdrawal Denial Blaming others Minimization of problem *

38 De-escalation Intervention is focused on removing excess attention
Avoid nagging Avoid blaming Don’t force apology Consider function Emphasize starting anew *

39 Approaches to Calming by Function
Obtain Attention Avoidance Obtain materials/activities •Sit with student •Allow venting and be an active listener •Go through calming strategies with the student •Have student take your hands, look you in the eye, breath in, count to 5, and breath out •You actively approach student at regular intervals to check in •Walk and talk •Sensory with attention •Little to no talking, no touching, more visual than verbal •Provide a visual of calming strategies •Have a calming bag that has independent calming tasks •Provide student the power to let you know when he or she is ready •Sensory without attention •Have student part of developing the plan •Provide choices in calming -Where to sit -What to do

40 Calming Strategies Five point scale Counting Visualization
Breathing Breath in to count of 5, hold for count of 5, exhale for count of 5 Smell the soup Yoga Breathing Put tongue behind your two front teeth Close your mouth an breathe in through your nose to the count of four slowly Breathe out for the count of four Repeat 10 times Five point scale Counting Visualization Calming tools

41 Calming Tools

42 The MODEL High Low RECOVERY *

43 Recovery Engage in Non-engagement Activities
Attempts to correct problem Unwillingness to participate in group activities Social withdrawal & sleep *

44 Recovery Follow through with consequences
Positively reinforce any appropriate behavior Intervention is focused on re- establishing routine activities *

45 Recovery - Debrief Purpose of debrief is to facilitate transition back to program…not a further negative consequence Debrief follows consequences for problem behavior Goal is to increase more appropriate behavior *

46 Recovery Processing & Problem Solving
Why do we process? Teaches students to Accurately identify the problem Allows students to practice problem solving skills Provides an opportunity to practice and re-teach behavioral skills Allows us to make a plan and get students back into class where they belong *

47 Problem Solving Conferences: why?
Teach, model, and practice problem solving skills Looks for the underlying cause of the problem Position the teacher and student as collaborators: Instead of a one-way process, it is a 2-way conversation that involves asking the child what to do Avoid one-size fits all This is NOT A PUNISHMENT

48 Teacher Language During Conferencing
Don’t assume you know what happened Most kids need support through this process Non-judgmental Use a matter-of-fact tone Keep teacher talk to a minimum Use words and phrases that empower the child to reflect: Do more asking than telling Use positive language that helps the child see a new way – help child reflect on what we WANT to see

49 Problem Solving Conference
1. Define the problem What the student noticed, what the teacher noticed What were you doing? What did it look like? 2. Evaluate the consequences of the students choice: How did it affect the classroom? How did it affect you? 3. Define and re-teach the social or behavioral expectations related to the context or situation Define, Model, practice (role-play) “What is the expectation when….”, “How can we appropriately…” Show me what that would look like… 4. Help student set a goal or make a plan Brainstorm some alternate solutions to the problem “Next time ____ happens I will….” 5. Implement the plan Contract, re-entry to classroom, discussion with teacher 6. Check back or have the teacher check back

50 Consequences vs. Punishment
Logical Consequences: “the three Rs” Related to the misbehavior Respectful of the child Reasonable for the child to do as well an in proportion to the misbehavior Punishment Punishment may make behavior worse Punishment only addresses the symptoms of the problem, not the reason behind it Punishment is often about the adult not the student There is a place for punishment, but it has to be part of an overall plan and should be logical

51 Considerations for selecting responses to problem behavior
Will the response decrease the problem behavior? Will the response teach appropriate behavior? Will the response have unwanted side effects? Can the response be applied across settings? Is the response age-appropriate and respectful? Does the response offer a good contextual fit? It the response matched to the cognitive understanding of the student?

52 The MODEL High Peak Acceleration De-escalation Agitation Trigger Calm
Low Calm Peak De-escalation Recovery Acceleration Agitation Trigger *

53 THREE KEY STRATEGIES Intervene early
Identify environmental factors that can be manipulated Identify replacement behaviors that can be taught (& serve same function as problem).

54 Teaching Compliance Students must Be fluent at expected behavior.
Be taught conditions under which the expected behavior is required. Have multiple opportunities for high rates of successful academic & social engagement. Receive or experience frequent & positive acknowledgments when expected behavior is exhibited.

55 Prevention means Teachers must…
Have student’s attention, before presenting the directive or making a request. Give clear, specific, positively stated directives. Provide frequent & positive acknowledgments when expected behavior is exhibited. Have established & taught consequence procedures for repeated noncompliance.

56 Website that may be helpful…

57 Escalating Behavior - Action Planning
Review features & steps of “Escalating Behavior” model Discuss extent to which escalating behavior is or could be issue in your school Identify how you will teach staff back home about addressing escalating behavior Write down 3 “big ideas” from your team discussion to share in the “give one get one” networking activity.

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