Presentation on theme: "Managing Escalating Behavior Individual Tier II. PURPOSE Enhance understanding & ways of escalating behavior sequences Understanding the Escalation Cycle."— Presentation transcript:
Managing Escalating Behavior Individual Tier II
PURPOSE Enhance understanding & ways of escalating behavior sequences Understanding the Escalation Cycle Best practice Considerations Your action planning how to share with staff back home
OUTCOMES ◆ Identification of how to intervene early in an escalation. ◆ Identification of environmental factors that can be manipulated. ◆ Identification of replacement behaviors that can be taught (& serve same function as problem).
Primary Prevention: School-/Classroom- Wide Systems for All Students, Staff, & Settings Secondary Prevention: Specialized Group Systems for Students with At-Risk Behavior Tertiary Prevention: Specialized Individualized Systems for Students with High-Risk Behavior ~80% of Students ~15% ~5% CONTINUUM OF SCHOOL-WIDE INSTRUCTIONAL & POSITIVE BEHAVIOR SUPPORT ALL SOME FEW
ASSUMPTIONS Behavior is learned (function) Behavior is escalated through successive interactions (practice) Behavior can be changed through an instructional approach
Reasons Students Commonly Misbehave Unsure of expectations Unsure how to exhibit expected behavior Unaware he/she is engaged in the misbehavior Misbehavior is providing student with desired outcome: ❖ Gain something ❖ Escape something
TeacherJason Jason, please turn in your assignment. What assignment? I finished it. I don’t have it with me now. You never believe me. F_____ you! Pulls away, glares, & raises fist as if to strike. The assignment you didn’t finish during class. Great, please turn it in now. You have a choice: turn it in or do it again. I guess you’ve made the choice to do it again. That’s disrespect…go to the office. Moves closer…& puts hand on J. shoulder. Make me.
The MODEL ◆ What we know is that people follow a predictable pattern. ◆ We know from this pattern how to minimize safety risks for students and staff ◆ We know how to support the person going through the cycle best by knowing when and how to respond High Low Calm Peak De-escalation Recovery Acceleration Agitation Trigger
The MODEL High Low
The MODEL High Low
The MODEL High Low
The MODEL High Low
The MODEL High Low CALM ✱✱✱✱
Calm – Student is Cooperative Accepts corrective feedback Follows directives Sets personal goals Ignores distractions Accepts praise This is where positive and valuing relationships are built and where you teach skills needed to function successfully in challenging situations.
Calm – Intervention is prevention Arrange for high rates of successful academic & social engagements Teach social skills Problem solving Relaxation strategy Self-management Communicate positive expectations Assess problem behavior **Use positive reinforcement **Praise has been shown to increase on task behavior and decrease problem behavior (Gootman, 2001)
Teaching Procedures ◆ Remember telling isn't teaching and being told is not the same as being taught. We have to take all our procedures and TIPP them. ◆ T- Teach it ◆ I- Imprint it by modeling ◆ P- Practice it with them ◆ P- Praise it when you see it with behavior specific praise
The MODEL High Low TRIGGER ✱✱
Trigger – Series of Unresolved Conflicts Repeated failures Frequent corrections Interpersonal conflicts Low rates of positive reinforcement Recognize – Refocus - Reassure ◆ This is where signs of early stress need to be recognized. This is the best time to refocus the person’s attention away from the stress.
Trigger – Prevention & Redirection Consider function of problem behavior Remove from or modify problem context Increase opportunities for success Reinforce what has been taught
When I respond what do I say? Stay Calm – Quiet, Breath, Count, Depersonalize, Take a second Be empathic Don’t judge or discount feelings Clarify messages Ask reflective questions, use silence and restatements Refocus/redirect/reassure Avoid power struggle
That didn’t work: Setting Limits Limits are not the same as issuing an ultimatum Limits are not threats Limits offer choices with consequences The purpose of limits is to teach, not to punish Students begin to understand their actions, positive or negative, have consequences Provides structure for good decision making Setting limits is more about listening than talking Simple/clear, reasonable, enforceable
Tips to Setting Limits Keep power struggles to a minimum. Set limits by using impersonal, measurable criteria (this is where routines and procedures come in to play). It is also helpful to post schedules, daily independent work assignments, and lists of rules and consequences on walls and bulletin boards for students to refer to. Having things in writing helps us “Be the director not the bad guy” Request behavior that is incompatible with the undesirable behavior. Many times it will be far more effective to say "Hands at your sides!" instead of "Don't hit!“ Be positive. Setting limits is healthy. It does not have to be done in a rude or hostile way. Firmness does not mean intimidation. Give reasonable choices with consequences (not delivered in a threatening manner) Allow time for the student to make a choice Be prepared to enforce your consequences
The MODEL High Low AGITATION ✱
Agitation – Unfocused Behavior Off-task Frequent start/stop on tasks Out of seat Talking with others Social withdrawal
Agitation – Reduce Anxiety Consider function of problem behavior Make structural/ environmental modifications Provide reasonable options & choices Involve in successful engagements Move Student Away Now is the time to have the student leave the anxiety producing event if possible
Ongoing Confrontation Remember: Escalated students are not rational! The more escalated they are the calmer you have to be, the less you say Escalation is not the time to establish your authority If you need to or are able to move student away from peers or peers away from students Allow release if you are able Distraction is allowed Do not go deal with consequences until the situation is over and the student is rational again Physical response only at a last resort
The MODEL High Low ACCELERATION
Acceleration – Displays Focused Behavior Deliberate High intensity Threatening Personal Minimize Talking-Model Calm This is not a time to ask the person to make choices. Model calming strategies.
The Paradoxical response When students engage in confrontation they expect what they usually get: anger, ultimatums and more confrontation The paradoxical response: The calmer you get the more difficult it will be for the student to escalate the situation Be aware of your body and your nonverbals
Nonverbals Body Posture Stance Location Facial expression Easiest Voice Tone Volume speed Most difficult Eyes Where I am looking Easiest BreathingHow I am breathing Cross cultural Nonverbals: we need to make our nonverbal expectations meet our verbal expectations The single most powerful nonverbal skill is the PAUSE
Nonverbals Body: Posture Stance Location 1.Arms to side or, 2.Arms parallel to floor or, 3.One arm up and one down, and 4.Weight Even The message -Confident -Believe -Expect ∙CPI supportive stance ∙Gestures: Palms up vs. Palms down ∙When giving a request: Stop moving! ∙When you pause hold your gestures Voice/Paraverbal: -Tone -Volume -Speed (cadence) The more agitated the student is the less you say -Low and slow -Flat voice -Accompany brief request with a nonverbal when you can (language, processing, etc) -NO Sarcasm “Are you ready to work now?” Face/Eyes-Make sure the message on your face matches your intent -Look where you gesture
Acceleration Intervention is focused on safety Remember: Escalations & self-control are inversely related Escalation is likely to run its course
Acceleration Remove all triggering & competing maintaining factors Follow crisis prevention procedures Disengage from student
The MODEL High Low PEAK
PeakStudent is out of control & displays most severe problem behavior Physical aggression Property destruction Self-injury Escape/social withdrawal Hyperventilation
PeakIntervention is focused on safety ◆ Focus is on crisis intervention This is not a time to talk, direct, or problem solve. The main concern is safety. Follow the school or student crisis plan.
The MODEL High Low DECELERATION
De-escalation Student displays confusion but with decreases in severe behavior Social withdrawal Denial Blaming others Minimization of problem Focus is on calming At this point the person should be encouraged to relax rather than make any decisions. Do not try to process here.
De-escalation Intervention is focused on removing excess attention Avoid nagging Avoid blaming Don’t force apology Consider function Emphasize starting anew
Approaches to Calming by Function Obtain AttentionAvoidanceObtain materials/activities Sit with student Allow venting and be an active listener Go through calming strategies with the student Have student take your hands, look you in the eye, breath in, count to 5, and breath out You actively approach student at regular intervals to check in Walk and talk Sensory with attention Little to no talking, no touching, more visual than verbal Provide a visual of calming strategies Have a calming bag that has independent calming tasks Provide student the power to let you know when he or she is ready Sensory without attention Have student part of developing the plan Provide choices in calming -Where to sit -What to do
Calming Strategies ◆ Breathing ◆ Breath in to count of 5, hold for count of 5, exhale for count of 5 ◆ Smell the soup ◆ Yoga Breathing ◆ Put tongue behind your two front teeth ◆ Close your mouth an breathe in through your nose to the count of four slowly ◆ Breathe out for the count of four ◆ Repeat 10 times Five point scale Counting Visualization Calming tools
The MODEL High Low RECOVERY ✱
Recovery Engage in Non-engagement Activities Attempts to correct problem Unwillingness to participate in group activities Social withdrawal & sleep
Recovery Follow through with consequences Positively reinforce any appropriate behavior Intervention is focused on re- establishing routine activities
Recovery - Debrief Purpose of debrief is to facilitate transition back to program…not a further negative consequence Debrief follows consequences for problem behavior Goal is to increase more appropriate behavior
Recovery Processing & Problem Solving Why do we process? Teaches students to Accurately identify the problem Allows students to practice problem solving skills Provides an opportunity to practice and re-teach behavioral skills Allows us to make a plan and get students back into class where they belong
Problem Solving Conferences: why? ◆ Teach, model, and practice problem solving skills ◆ Looks for the underlying cause of the problem ◆ Position the teacher and student as collaborators: ◆ Instead of a one-way process, it is a 2-way conversation that involves asking the child what to do ◆ Avoid one-size fits all ◆ This is NOT A PUNISHMENT
Teacher Language During Conferencing ◆ Don’t assume you know what happened ◆ Most kids need support through this process ◆ Non-judgmental ◆ Use a matter-of-fact tone ◆ Keep teacher talk to a minimum ◆ Use words and phrases that empower the child to reflect: Do more asking than telling ◆ Use positive language that helps the child see a new way – help child reflect on what we WANT to see
Problem Solving Conference 1. Define the problem ◆ What the student noticed, what the teacher noticed ◆ What were you doing? What did it look like? 2. Evaluate the consequences of the students choice: ◆ How did it affect the classroom? How did it affect you? 3. Define and re-teach the social or behavioral expectations related to the context or situation ◆ Define, Model, practice (role-play) ◆ “What is the expectation when….”, “How can we appropriately…” ◆ Show me what that would look like… 4. Help student set a goal or make a plan Brainstorm some alternate solutions to the problem “Next time ____ happens I will….” 5. Implement the plan Contract, re-entry to classroom, discussion with teacher 6. Check back or have the teacher check back
Consequences vs. Punishment Logical Consequences: “the three Rs” Related to the misbehavior Respectful of the child Reasonable for the child to do as well an in proportion to the misbehavior Punishment Punishment may make behavior worse Punishment only addresses the symptoms of the problem, not the reason behind it Punishment is often about the adult not the student There is a place for punishment, but it has to be part of an overall plan and should be logical
Considerations for selecting responses to problem behavior Will the response decrease the problem behavior? Will the response teach appropriate behavior? Will the response have unwanted side effects? Can the response be applied across settings? Is the response age-appropriate and respectful? Does the response offer a good contextual fit? It the response matched to the cognitive understanding of the student?
The MODEL High Low Calm Peak De-escalation Recovery Acceleration Agitation Trigger
THREE KEY STRATEGIES Intervene early Identify environmental factors that can be manipulated Identify replacement behaviors that can be taught (& serve same function as problem).
Teaching Compliance Students must Be fluent at expected behavior. Be taught conditions under which the expected behavior is required. Have multiple opportunities for high rates of successful academic & social engagement. Receive or experience frequent & positive acknowledgments when expected behavior is exhibited.
Prevention means Teachers must… Have student’s attention, before presenting the directive or making a request. Give clear, specific, positively stated directives. Provide frequent & positive acknowledgments when expected behavior is exhibited. Have established & taught consequence procedures for repeated noncompliance.
Website that may be helpful…
Escalating Behavior - Action Planning Review features & steps of “Escalating Behavior” model Discuss extent to which escalating behavior is or could be issue in your school Identify how you will teach staff back home about addressing escalating behavior Write down 3 “big ideas” from your team discussion to share in the “give one get one” networking activity.