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Mechanisms and Characteristics of Sports Trauma “How Injuries Happen”

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Presentation on theme: "Mechanisms and Characteristics of Sports Trauma “How Injuries Happen”"— Presentation transcript:

1 Mechanisms and Characteristics of Sports Trauma “How Injuries Happen”

2 What You Will Learn 1.What actually happens within your body when you get injured. 2.What kinds of forces cause injury. 3.What the names are of common injuries. 4.What the normal structures of bone and soft tissue are. 5.The different types of wounds. 6.How your body heals after it is injured.

3 January 2008Paul Davidson BSc (Hons), MCSP, Registered with the HPC 3 “Occasional exercise is sometimes fatal, often injurious, and almost always painful” Williams JPR 1974 Wales and British Lions fullback

4 January 2008Paul Davidson BSc (Hons), MCSP, Registered with the HPC 4

5 January Injury Classification ACUTE: rapid onset, traumatic event with a clearly identifiable cause. SUB-ACUTE: period between acute and chronic, usually 4-6 weeks post-injury. CHRONIC: slow onset, gradual development of structural damage. Clark, 2004

6 January Types of injuries MUSCLE: haematoma (a collection of blood outside a blood vessel ), strains, tears, LIGAMENT: partial tear, complete rupture TENDON: tendinitis, tendonosis BURSAE: acute, chronic SKIN: Open Wounds

7 Soft Tissue Injuries What are the different types of soft tissue in your body? Wound Types/ Classifications –Blisters-Abrasions –Bruise- Laceration –Avulsion- Incision –Puncture

8 Abrasions Surface layer of skin is scraped off Puncture Penetration by a sharp object Incision A straight/ sharp cut Avulsion Tissue is ripped from its source Blister A collection of fluid below or w/in the top layer of skin Laceration A jagged cut Bruise Bleeding under the skin.

9 Muscle Types -Smooth -Cardiac -Striated/ Skeletal Musc. Inj. -Contusions -Strains -Overexertion -Spasms/ Cramps

10 Muscle Strains/Sprains All Strains and Sprains are graded on a 3 tier scale –Grade 1 – Mild Local pain w/ little bruising. Little to no loss of strength. –Grade 2 – Moderate Moderate pain/ bruising/ swelling Impaired muscle function (i.e. limping) –Grade 3 – Severe Loss of muscle function Palpable defect

11 Cramps and Spasms Cramp - A painful involuntary contraction of a skeletal muscle or musc. group. –Caused by ____________________ Spasm – reflex reaction caused by trauma –Clonic – contracting and relaxing –Tonic – constant contraction Find a partner…. Massage time!

12 Muscle Soreness Acute Onset Muscle Soreness –Decreased circulation –Lactic Acid and potassium collect within the muscle Which stimulate pain receptors Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness –Caused most by eccentric exercise –Cell/ Fiber death within the muscle Prevention –Good Warm-up –Extended cool down –Stretching before and after activity

13 Chronic Muscle Injuries - itis –An inflammation or irritation of the structure (tendonitis – irritation of the tendon) Caused over a longer period of time by the wearing away of a structure or repeated acute injuries

14 Join ______ to _______ Tendons can produce/ maintain a pull from 8,700 – 18,000 lbs/in 2 Unloaded Loaded Yield point What happens when you stretch a slinky too far??? Tendons are actually 2x the strength of the muscle it serves. - injuries, therefore, usually occur at the muscle or at the attachment. Tendons

15 Ligaments Join _________ to ________ Ligaments are thickest in the middle, so they usually tear at the ends. Injuries to the ligaments usually happen when a constant stress is put on them over a period of time –Intermittent stress actually strengthens the ligaments.

16 Cartilage Cartilage is the shock absorber between two bones. –Injuries occur after repeated irregular stress –Cartilage ImagesCartilage Images

17 Injury Classifications Sprain Strain Subluxation Dislocations Sprains are graded on a scale 1-3 just like strains.

18 Review Questions 1.As a runner, Jen puts a lot of daily stress on her knees, now her patellar tendon is irritated. That is called _____________ 2.Sliding into home Mike scraped off the top layer of skin on his thigh and got pegged by the ball. a. What forces were being applied? b. What injuries did these forces cause? 3. When Jon ruptured (completely tore) his Achilles tendon, where did it most likely tear? 4. What would you recommend to someone who is constantly going to practice sore?

19 January 2008Paul Davidson BSc (Hons), MCSP, Registered with the HPC 19 Causes of Soft Tissue Injuries Intrinsic causes of injury –factors within the sports person Extrinsic causes of injury –factors outside the sports person

20 January Intrinsic Causes of STI Lack of warm-up Inadequate fitness or physical weakness Anatomical factors Tight muscle groups Muscle imbalance Previous injury

21 January Extrinsic Causes of STI Faulty technique Inappropriate training: training errors ; mode; duration; intensity Inappropriate clothing Inappropriate footwear Lack of protective safety equipment Inappropriate environment


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