Presentation on theme: "Mechanisms and Characteristics of Sports Trauma"— Presentation transcript:
1 Mechanisms and Characteristics of Sports Trauma “How Injuries Happen”
2 What You Will LearnWhat actually happens within your body when you get injured.What kinds of forces cause injury.What the names are of common injuries.What the normal structures of bone and soft tissue are.The different types of wounds.How your body heals after it is injured.
3 Mechanical InjuryWith any injury, a force is placed on any part of the body resulting in the changing of function or structure.Three typesCompressionTensionShear
4 Mechanical ForcesTension – a force that pulls or stretches the tissue.Stretching beyond the YIELD POINT causes a structure to tear or breakLaffyTaffyCompression – a force that, with enough energy crushes tissueCompression fracturesPop canBending – Compression and tension forces applied together upon a structureTongue depressor
5 OREO Mechanical forces Shearing – a force that moves parallel with the tissueBlisters,Abrasions, andDisk InjuriesOREO
6 Soft Tissue Injuries Wound Types/ Classifications T.P.S. – what are the different types of soft tissue in your body?Wound Types/ ClassificationsBlisters -AbrasionsBruise - LacerationAvulsion - IncisionPuncture
7 Abrasions Puncture Incision Avulsion Blister Laceration Bruise Surface layer of skin is scraped offPuncturePenetration by a sharp objectIncisionA straight/ sharp cutAvulsionTissue is ripped from its sourceBlisterA collection of fluid below or w/in the top layer of skinLacerationA jagged cutBruiseBleeding under the skin.
8 T.P.S. A soccer player (in this picture) has just made a slide tackle. What types of forces are being applied?What are some of the possible injuries that either player could receive from this motion?
10 Muscle Strains All Strains and Sprains are graded on a 3 tier scale Grade 1 – MildLocal pain w/ little bruising (ecchymosis).Little to no loss of strength.Grade 2 – ModerateModerate pain/ bruising/ swellingImpaired muscle function (i.e. limping)Grade 3 – SevereLoss of muscle functionPalpable defect
11 Cramps and SpasmsCramp - A painful involuntary contraction of a skeletal muscle or musc. group.Caused by ____________________Spasm – reflex reaction caused by traumaClonic – contracting and relaxingTonic – constant contractionFind a partner…. Massage time!
12 Muscle Soreness Acute Onset Muscle Soreness Decreased circulationLactic Acid and potassium collect within the muscleWhich stimulate pain receptorsDelayed Onset Muscle SorenessCaused most by eccentric exerciseCell/ Fiber death within the musclePreventionGood Warm-upExtended cool downStretching before and after activity
13 Chronic Muscle Injuries - itisAn inflammation or irritation of the structure (tendonitis – irritation of the tendon)Caused over a longer period of time by the wearing away of a structure or repeated acute injuries
14 Tendons Join ______ to _______ Tendons can produce/ maintain a pull from 8,700 – 18,000 lbs/in2Unloaded Loaded Yield pointWhat happens when you stretch a slinky too far???Tendons are actually 2x the strength of the muscleit serves.- injuries, therefore, usually occur at the muscle orat the attachment.
15 Ligaments Join _________ to ________ Ligaments are thickest in the middle, so they usually tear at the ends.Injuries to the ligaments usually happen when a constant stress is put on them over a period of timeIntermittent stress actually strengthens the ligaments.
16 Cartilage Cartilage is the shock absorber between two bones. Injuries occur after repeated irregular stressCartilage Images
17 Injury Classifications SprainStrainSubluxationDislocationsSprains are graded on a scale 1-3 just like strains.
18 Review QuestionsAs a runner, Jen puts a lot of daily stress on her knees, now her patellar tendon is irritated. That is called _____________Sliding into home Mike scraped off the top layer of skin on his thigh and got pegged by the ball.a. What forces were being applied?b. What injuries did these forces cause?3. When Jon ruptured (completely tore) his Achilles tendon, where did it most likely tear?4. What would you recommend to someone who is constantly going to practice sore?
19 Skeletal Trauma Bone Functions Types of Bone Body support - Stores CalciumOrgan Protection - Formation of RBCMovementTypes of BoneFlat – skull, ribs, scapulaIrregular – vertebral column, skullShort – wrist and ankleLong – humerus, ulna, femur, tibia, fibula, phalanges
20 Weaknesses Bones are weak where they change shape and/or direction. Clavicle changes shape and direction at approx. the same spot, therefore that is where the majority of the fx occur.Depending on the force applied there are 11 different types of fractures (fx)
21 Type of fractures include, Greenstick Impacted Longitudinal Oblique Incomplete breaksImpactedtelescopeLongitudinalObliqueOne end = torsionOpposite end = fixedSerratedSpiralPlant and twistTransverseComminutedBlowoutEyeAvulsion
22 Stress Fractures Overload due to no specific cause but with a number of possible causesOverload due tomuscle contraction,altered stress distribution due to muscle fatigue,changes in surface (shoes, surfaces, terrain)rhythmic repetitive stress vibrationsAlternating events (not prepped for 2nd event)Coming back to participation too soon
23 Stress Fx cont.Bones get weaker before the become stronger, so if not conditioned well before intense practice starts….Dx difficult due to gradual onsetSx – swelling, local tenderness, pain w/ activity only, may progress to pain w/ activity and rest.Tx – rest, ice, compression
24 Epiphyseal (Growth) Plates through age 16 or soNOT GOOD!growth probs.
25 ReviewA bowling ball fell on your arm. What type of fracture do you most likely have?What are 3 reasons that cross country runners see the most stress fractures of any other type of athlete?Where is the bone weakest?Why are we so concerned with younger athletes injuring themselves?