Presentation on theme: "Chapter 9: Mechanisms and Characteristics of Sports Trauma"— Presentation transcript:
1Chapter 9: Mechanisms and Characteristics of Sports Trauma
2What is trauma?A physical injury or wound sustained in sport and produced by external or internal force.
3Tissues have relative abilities to resist a particular load Tissues have relative abilities to resist a particular load. If the tissue is stronger, what will happen?The greater magnitude of load it can withstand.
4List and define the five type of tissue stresses: Tensionforce that pulls or stretches tissueStretchingstretching beyond the yield point leads to rupturing of soft tissue or fracturing of a boneCompressiona force that, with enough energy, crushes tissueShearinga force that moves across the parallel organization of the tissueBendingforce on a horizontal beam or bone that places stresses within the structure, causing it to bend or strain
5What are the two categories of soft (non-bony) tissue and give examples non-contractileskin, joint capsules, ligaments, fascia, cartilage, dura mater, nerve roots nerve rootscontractilemuscle, tendons, bony insertions
6What is the skin (integument)? External covering of the body
7What does the skin represent? The body’s largest organ
8The skin consist of what two layers? Epidermis and dermis
9List the numerous mechanical forces that can adversely affect the skin’s integrity: friction or rubbingscrapingcompression or pressuretearingcuttingPenetrating
10How are skin wounds classified? According to the mechanical force that causes them
11List and define the different types of wound classifications:
12a. friction blistercontinuous rubbing over the surface of the skin causes a collection of fluid below or within the epidermal layer called a blister
13b. abrasioncommon conditions in which the skin is scraped against a rough surface. The epidermis and dermis are worn away, exposing numerous blood capillaries
14c. skin bruisewhen a blow compresses or crushes the skin surface and produces bleeding under the skin, the condition is defined as a bruise, or contusion
15d. lacerationa wound in which the flesh has been irregularly torn
16e. skin avulsionskin that is torn by the same mechanism as a laceration to the extent that the tissue is completely ripped from its source is an avulsion injury
17f. incisiona wound in which the skin has been sharply cut
18g. puncturepenetrations of the skin by a sharp object
19What are the three types of muscles within the body? SmoothCardiacStriated (skeletal)
20Which muscle is of major concern in sports medicine? Striated (skeletal) muscle
21What are the two categories of acute muscle injuries? ContusionsStrains
22How does one receive a contusion? Sudden traumatic blow to the body
23What is the range of intensity of a contusion? Deep to superficial
24What is typical in cases of severe contusions? the athlete reports being struck by a hard blowthe blow causes pain and a transitory paralysis caused by pressure on and shock to the motor and sensory nervespalpation often reveals a hard area, indurated because of internal hemorrhageecchymosis, or tissue discoloration, may take place
25What is a strain?A stretch, tear, or rip in the muscle or adjacent tissue such as the fascia or muscle tendon
26How are strains most often produced? Abnormal muscular contraction
27What is the cause of abnormal muscular contraction? It is fault in the reciprocal coordination of the agonist and antagonist muscles take place. The cause of this fault or uncoordination is a mystery. However, possible explanations are that it may be related to:a mineral imbalance caused by profuse sweatingto fatigue metabolites collected in the muscle itselfto a strength imbalance between agonist and antagonist muscles.
28What is a grade 1 (or 1st degree or 1°) strain? Slight over-stretching to mild tearing (20%) of the muscle fibers. It is accompanied by local pain, which is increased by tension in the muscle, and a minor loss of strength. There is mild swelling, ecchymosis, and local tenderness.
29What is a grade 2 (or 2nd degree or 2°) strain? Moderate tearing (20% - 70%) of the muscle fibers. It is similar to a grade 1, but has moderate signs and symptoms (moderate loss of strength, moderate swelling, ecchymosis, and local tenderness).
30What is a grade 3 (or 3rd degree or 3°) strain? Has signs and symptoms that are severe (severe swelling, ecchymosis, and local tenderness) with a loss of muscle function and, commonly, a palpable defect in the muscle.
32Because a tendon is usually double the strength of the muscle it serves, where do tears commonly occur?At the muscle belly, musculotendinous junction, or bony attachment
33What is a cramp?A painful involuntary contraction of a skeletal muscle or muscle group.
34Cramps have been attributed to what? A lack of water or other electrolytes in relation to muscle fatigue.
35What is a spasm?A reflexive reaction caused by trauma of the musculoskeletal system
36List and define the two types of spasms or cramps: clonic – alternating involuntary muscular contraction and relaxation in quick successiontonic – rigid muscle contraction that lasts a period of time.
37Muscle cramps or spasms may lead to what? Muscle strain
38What is one constant problem in physical conditioning and training? Overexertion
39How is exercise over-dosage reflected? Muscle sorenessDecreased joint flexibilityGeneral fatigue 24 hours after activity.
40What are the four specific indicators of possible overexertion? acute muscle sorenessdelayed muscle sorenessmuscle stiffnessmuscle cramping
41List and define the two types of muscle soreness: Acute-onset muscle soreness – which accompanies fatigue. This muscle pain is transient and occurs during and immediately after exercise.Delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS) – becomes most intense after 24 to 48 hours and then gradually subsides so that the muscle becomes symptom-free after 3 or 4 days. (This second type of pain is described as a syndrome of delayed muscle pain leading to increased muscle tension, swelling, stiffness, and resistance to stretch).
42What are the possible causes for delayed-onset muscle soreness? It may occur from very small tears in the muscle tissue, which seems to be more likely with eccentric or isometric contractions.It may also occur because of disruption of the connective tissue that hold muscle tendon fibers together.
43What is muscle stiffness? Muscle stiffness does not produce pain. It occurs when a group of muscles have been worked for a long period of time. The fluids that collect in the muscles during and after exercise are absorbed into the bloodstream at a slow rate. As a result, the muscle becomes swollen, shorter, and thicker and therefore resists stretch.
44What can be done to assist in reducing muscle stiffness? Light exerciseMassagePassive mobilization
45What is muscle guarding? Following injury, the muscle that surrounds the injured area contract, in effect, splint that area, thus minimizing pain by limiting movement. (Quite often this splinting is incorrectly referred to as a muscle spasm)
46How do chronic injuries usually progress? Slowly, over a long period of time.
47Often, what leads to a chronic condition? Repeated acute injuries
48How does an acute injury cause a chronic injury? If the acute injury is managed improperly or that allows an athlete to return to activity before healing has completely occurred.
49What is myositis/fasciitis? Inflammation of the muscle tissue
50What is tendonitis?Inflammation of tendon-muscle attachments, tendons, or both
51What is tenosynovitis?Inflammation of the synovial sheath surrounding a tendon
52What is atrophy?The wasting away of muscle tissue
53What may cause atrophy?Immobilization of a body partInactivityLoss of nerve stimulation
54What is a muscle contracture? An abnormal shortening of a muscle tissue in which there is a great deal of resistance to passive stretch
55What do joints consists of? Cartilage and fibrous connective tissue
56What is a joint capsule?Bones of a diarthrotic (freely movable) joint are held together by a cuff of fibrous tissue
57What are ligaments?Sheets or bundles of collagen fibers that form a connection between two bonesAttach bone to bone
58Ligaments fall into what two categories? Intrinsic – occurring within the articular capsuleExtrinsic – separate from the capsular thickening
59What is articular cartilage and what does it do? Connective tissue that provides firm and flexible support
60What are the major acute injuries that happen to synovial joints? SprainsSubluxationsDislocations
61What is a sprain?Stretching or total tearing of the stabilizing connective tissues (ligaments)
62What is a grade 1 (or 1st degree or 1°) sprain? Slight over-stretching to mild tearing (20%) of the ligament. It is characterized by some pain, minimum loss of function, mild point tenderness, little or no swelling, and no abnormal motion when tested.
63What is a grade 2 (or 2nd degree or 2°) sprain? Moderate tearing (20% - 70%) of the ligament. There is pain, moderate loss of function, swelling, and in some cases slight to moderate instability.
64What is a grade 3 (or 3rd degree or 3°) sprain? It is extremely painful, with major loss of function, severe instability, tenderness, and swelling.
65What is a subluxation?Partial dislocations in which an incomplete separation between two articulating bones occurs.
66What is a dislocation (luxation)? Total disunion of bone apposition between articulating surfaces
67What are several factors that are important in recognizing and evaluating dislocations? Loss of limb functionDeformitySwellingPoint tenderness
68What are the two major categories of chronic joint injuries? OsteochondrosisTraumatic arthritis
69What is osteochondrosis? Degenerative changes in the ossification centers of the epiphysis of bones
70What is traumatic arthritis? With repeated microtrauma to the articular joint surfaces, the bone and synovium thicken, and pain, muscle spasm, and articular crepitus, or grating on movement occur.
71What is a bursa?A fluid-filled sac found at places at which friction might occur within body tissues.
72What is bursitis?Inflammation of bursa at sites of bony prominences between muscle and tendon.
73What is capsulitis and synovitis? Chronic inflammatory conditions of the joints.
74What are the five basic functions of bone? Body supportOrgan protectionMovementCalcium reservationFormation of blood cells
75What are the three classifications of bone trauma? PeriostitisAcute fracturesStress fractures
76What is periostitis?Inflammation of the periosteum (bone covering)
77What is an acute bone fracture? A partial or complete interruption in a bone’s continuity
78What is a stress fracture? Rhythmic muscle action performed over a period of time at a sub-threshold level causes the stress-bearing capacity of a bone to be exceeded
79What are the typical causes of stress fractures in sports? Coming back into competition too soon after an injury or illnessGoing from one event to another without proper training in the second eventStarting initial training too quicklyChanging habits or the environment