Presentation on theme: "Interpersonal Relationship --- Newer Approaches Relationships Individual subjective reactions to cues in an interaction Active search/detection process."— Presentation transcript:
Interpersonal Relationship --- Newer Approaches Relationships Individual subjective reactions to cues in an interaction Active search/detection process for cues Timing and sequencing of cues (e.g., baking a cake example)
Thoughts about interpersonal interactions Evaluation of interaction as good, average, poor Future possibilities Strategies Narratives/stories about relationships Who is told? When they are told? What is said? Why they are told? Difference in perceptions; memory for facts Interpersonal Relationship --- Newer Approaches (cont.)
Results of Schachter’s “Dr. Zilstein study” Nonanxious subjects Anxious subjects # of Subjects Choose to wait alone Choose to wait with others Schachter (1959) manipulated the anxiety levels of female subjects by having them anticipate either painful or innocuous shock. The dependent variable was subjects’ choice to wait with others or to wait alone. The results indicated that anxious subjects chose to wait with others more than non-anxious subjects. Also, a follow-up study found that anxious people preferred to wait with other anxious people rather than those who were not anxious
The “Bridge” Study Misattribution of Emotional Arousal Procedure and Results? Bridge characteristics: Tilted, swayed (6 ft.), wobbled Low handrails (3 feet) 230 foot drop to rocks and rapids versus
Shortcoming of First Study? Results of 1 st study confirmed: TAT Scores: Exp. Group – Control Group – 1.92 Called Back: Exp. Group –--- 13/20 Control Group – 9/20
Grater attraction ratings when subjects expected receiving a strong vs. weak shock TAT scores were significantly higher when both the male and female were expecting the strong shock
Study 2 Procedure and Results?
Misattributions of Friendly Behavior Routine Conversation Female Male Observers Female Male Viewed female as promiscuous; were attracted to the female; saw themselves as flirtatious and seductive Viewed males as behaving in a sexual manner; females as promiscuous Sexual lens Interaction
Relationship Conflict --- Some Issues Jealousy --- Men Sexual infidelity (60%) Women Emotional infidelity (83%) Communication --- Demand-withdraw interaction pattern (Females wish to discuss problems, men avoid/withdraw from such discussions) Sex Children Money Different expectations
Years of marriage Ratings of marital quality WifeHusband Marital Satisfaction over Time In a longitudinal study that spanned ten years, married couples rated the quality of their marriages. On average, these ratings were high, but they declined among both husbands and wives. As you can see, there were two steep drops, occurring during the first and eighth years of marriage. (Kurdek, 1999.)
Changes in Life Satisfaction Before and After Divorce In this study, 817 men and women who were divorced at some point rated how satisfied they were with life on a scale of 0 to 10 every year for eighteen years. Overall, divorcees were less satisfied than their married counterparts-a common result. On the question of whether time heals the wound, you can see that satisfaction levels dipped before divorce, rebounded afterward, but did not return to original levels. It appears that people adapt but do not fully recover from this experience. (Lucas, 2005.) Life Satisfaction Ratings Years Before and After Divorce Divorce
Sample Liking Scale Items When I am with _____, we are almost always in the same mood. I think that _____ is unusually well-adjusted. I would highly recommend _____ for a responsible job. In my opinion, _____ is an exceptionally mature person. I have great confidence in _____’s good judgment. I think that _____ is someone one of those people who quickly win your respect. _____ is one of the most likeable people I know. _____ is the sort of person whom I myself would like to be. I would vote for _____ in a class or group election.
Sample Love Scale Items I would do anything for _____. I feel responsible for _____’s well being. I feel very possessive toward _____. If I could never be with _____, I would feel miserable. If I were lonely, my first thought would be to seek _____ out. I would forgive _____ for practically anything. In would greatly enjoy being confided in by _____. When I am with _____, I spend a good deal of my time just looking at him/her. I would be hard for me to get along without _____.
Liking & Loving for Dating Partners and Same-Sex Friends IndexWomenMen Love for Partner Liking for Partner Love for Friend Liking for Friend
To Whom Do People Lie? For one week, people recorded every instance in which they tried to mislead someone. As you can see, they lied most to strangers, followed by acquaintances, family members, and friends (left). Also shown is that people lied more often to their unmarried romantic partners than to their spouses (right). These results suggest that the closer two people are, the less likely they are to lie to each other. (Data from DePaulo & Kashy, 1998.) SpousesRomantic Partners FamilyFriendsAcquaintancesStrangers Rate of lying Types of Relationships