2 Activity Write your own ‘lonely hearts’ ads. As a group, analyse the results.
3 Why do this?This links in to theories of intersexual selection, and the idea that men will advertise resources they think women select (e.g. wealth and strength)and vice versa (women will advertise nurturing qualities).Intra sexual selection: Selection within same sex. Males fighting with other males to gain access to a female
4 Intersexual selection Selection between the two sections.Selection based on one sex preferring characteristics in the other sexE.G Peacocks
5 Types of relationships Friendship/CompanionshipRomanticSexual
6 Continued We are a social species Most of our emotions are experienced through relationshipsCompanionships: Prevents lonelinessProcreation and child rearing
7 A relationship is‘Any ongoing association between 2 or more individuals’ (Reis, ’96)
8 Formation of interpersonal relationships Basic ideaWe tend to have relationships with those we live close toBecause we live close to someone we are also likely to have more frequent interactions with those people – 2 factors linked
9 Evaluation Festinger et al. (1950) found: In multistory buildings, most friendships were formedwith people on the same floorZajonc (1968) circular argumentDo we like the person more because we spend time with them, or dowe spend time with them because we like the personWarr (1965) Found:Not all frequent interactions result in liking, sometimes it can producemore disliking. Suggests: frequency & proximity do NOT lead togreater liking just greater intensity of feelings
10 Physical Attractiveness Basic ideaDegree of physical attractiveness = one of the first things we noticeResearch evidenceGeneral agreement on what is considered attractiveAttractive people are perceived as having more positive characteristics (Brigham, 1971)Attractive people often DO have more positive characteristics (Langlois et al., 2000)WHY?
11 EvaluationThere are cultural differences in preferences for female body sizes (Anderson et al., 1992).Individuals also change their preferences, e.g., see others as more attractive when they are sexually aroused (Stephan et al., 1971).
12 The Similarity theory Basic idea Alikes rather than opposites attract Values, attitudes & beliefs are common indicators of strong friendships & attractiveness (Lea & Duck, 1982)Rubin (1973) explains why:possibility of engaging in same activitiessocial validation of our beliefsif we like ourselves, it should logically follow that we will like others who are similarfacilitate communicationwe may presume that people who are similar to us will like us
13 Evaluation There is considerable evidence in favour of this theory Sprecher (1998) Found:Similarity was especially important in same-sex friendshipsProximity, physical attractiveness, first impressions, and similarity have all been shown to be implicated in friendship choiceKerckhoff & Davis (1962) Suggests:Only applies in early stages of a friendship/relationshipSuggest in later stages of an established relationshipof needs is more important
14 Mate Selection Basic idea We choose those who are similar in attitudes, attractiveness, and personality to mate with.Winch (1958) = opposites attract & are happierBurgess and Wallin (1953) found no evidence for thisRosenbaum (1986) Found:Dissimilarity of attitudes reduces liking BUTno evidence to suggest the other way round
15 EvaluationBuss (1989) looked at evidence from the last 50 years to confirm the similarity hypothesis in mate selection
16 Physical attractiveness – Matching hypothesis (Ernest Goffman) Whether we think someone is attractive or not is often one of the first things we think about when we meet someone
17 The Theory Suggests Physical attractiveness is very important We all want a partner who is considered ‘socially desirable’Qualities that most people look for:Many women prefer a man who is taller than themselvesGood personalityIntelligence‘Good looks’We also take into account our own social desirability & how likely we are to get what we want in a partnerWe ‘socially match’ ourselves with a partner
18 EvaluationWalster et al. (1966)—we choose a partner who is the same level of attractiveness as we are (possibly to minimise the chance of rejection)Feingold (1988) found a high correlation between attractiveness of partners—supporting the matching hypothesis.