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Struggles in Africa Chapter 17 Section 2.

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Presentation on theme: "Struggles in Africa Chapter 17 Section 2."— Presentation transcript:

1 Struggles in Africa Chapter 17 Section 2

2 South Africa

3 Apartheid in South Africa
In the 1950s and 1960s, many new nations won independence in Africa Several other African nations suffered internal conflicts and civil wars In 1910, South Africa achieved self-rule from Britain Most civil rights, however, were limited to white settlers The black majority had few rights under a legal system of racial segregation called apartheid

4 Apartheid

5 Apartheid Laws Prohibited marriages between white people and people and non-white people Prohibited adultery between white and non-white people Required every South African to be racially classified Forced separation between races through the creation of residential areas designated for certain races Prevented black Africans from performing skilled work in any areas except those designated for black occupation

6 Apartheid Laws Led to the removal of Coloureds from the common voters' roll Gave the Minister of Native Affairs the ability to displace blacks from public and privately owned land and to place them in resettlement camps Created black homelands Forced black people to carry identification (which included a photograph, place of origin, employment record, tax payments, and encounters with the police) at all times

7 Apartheid Laws Prohibited black people to go on strike
Prevented black students from attending white Universities Removed black South African citizenship and required all black people to become a citizen of the homeland designated for his/her ethnic group


9 Houses in Soweto, a Black Township

10 “Blacks, Coloureds & Asians”


12 Apartheid in South Africa
Under apartheid, nonwhites faced many restrictions For example, laws banned marriages between races and stipulated segregated restaurants, beaches, and schools

13 ANC The African National Congress (ANC) opposed apartheid and led the struggledfor majority rule In 1960 police gunned down 69 people during a protest in Sharpeville, a black township The government then outlawed the ANC Nelson Mandela, an ANC leader, was sentenced to life imprisonment

14 Nelson Mandela

15 Sharpeville The anniversary of the Sharpeville Massacre of March 21, 1960 has been designated as a day against racial discrimination and for human rights. The apartheid police on this day slaughtered 69 Africans and wounded many others. The liberation movements were banned in South Africa in the immediate aftermath of the carnage

16 End to Apartheid In the 1980s, international demands for an end to apartheid and for Mandela’s release increased In 1984, Bishop Desmond Tutu won the Nobel Peace Prize for his nonviolent opposition to apartheid In 1990, South African president F.W. de Klerk ended apartheid and freed Mandela, who was elected president in 1994

17 Bishop Desmond Tutu

18 F.W. de Klerk

19 Portugal in Africa South Africa’s neighbors also experienced long conflicts to attain independence Portugal granted independence to Angola and Mozambique in 1975 South Africa and the United States saw the new nations as threats because some liberation leaders had ties to the ANC or the Soviet Union

20 Angola and Mozambique

21 Rwanda After independence, ethnic conflicts plagued many nations
Historic resentments divided nations, and regional rivalries fed ethnic violence In Rwanda, one of Africa’s deadliest wars occurred There, the Hutus were the majority but the minority Tutsis dominated Rwanda In 1994, extremist Hutus slaughtered about 800,000 Tutsis and moderate Hutus

22 Rwanda

23 Rwanda Genocide Victims

24 Rwanda (continued) Another 3 million Rwandans lost their homes
In response, world leaders pledged to stop genocide wherever it may occur Their power to do this, however, was limited

25 Darfur In Sudan, non-Muslim, non-Arab rebels in the south battled Arab Muslims from the north This war, drought, and famine caused millions of deaths Finally, southern rebels signed a peace agreement in 2004 In 2004, however, ethnic conflict spread to Darfur in western Sudan This conflict raises fears of a new genocide

26 Powerpoint Questions (13 points)
1. What term is given to the legal system of racial segregation? 2. What were black people force to carry at all times? 3. What public areas were segregated? (3 points) 4. What were blacks prevented from attending? 5. What happened in Sharpeville on March 21, 1960? 6. Who was the imprisoned leader of the African National Congress (ANC?)

27 Powerpoint Questions (13 points)
7. Who was Desmond Tutu? 8. Who was F.W. de Klerk? What did he accomplish? 9. What two ethnic groups fought each other in Rwanda? 10. What is the term for the ethnic cleansing of a population? 11. What happened in 1994 in Rwanda?

28 The End

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