Presentation on theme: "Некоркин Дмитрий 9 « А ». Winston Churchill British statesman and politician, Prime Minister of Great Britain in 1940-1945 and 1951-1955 years; soldier,"— Presentation transcript:
Winston Churchill British statesman and politician, Prime Minister of Great Britain in 1940-1945 and 1951-1955 years; soldier, journalist, writer, honorary member of the British Academy (1952), winner of the Nobel prize in literature (1953).
Childhood and Youth Winston Churchill was born on November 30, 1874. When Churchill was eight years old, he was sent to a preparatory school St. George. In the school they practiced corporal punishment, and Winston, constantly violating discipline, was often subjected to. In 1886, he suffered a severe inflammation of the lungs. Poor health and dubious success in study prompted parents to send him not to Eton, where in the course of many generations of the learned men of the kind of Marlborough, and in no less prestigious harrow. In 1889, he was transferred to the «army class», where, in addition to the teaching of General subjects, students were prepared for a military career. on June 28, 1893 Churchill on the third attempt passed exams at the Royal military College at Sandhurst.
Military Service After receiving the order, Churchill was enrolled in the 4th hussars regiment of Her Majesty. Perhaps it was then that he realized that a military career is not very appealing to him: «The longer I serve, the more I like to serve, but the more I am convinced that it is not for me». In October, 1896 the regiment sent to India and Is deployed in Bangalore. Churchill reads a lot, thus trying to compensate for the lack of a University education, and becomes one of the best players of the national team of the regiment Polo. In the fall of 1897,exerting their personal relationships and opportunities mother, he wants to be seconded to the expeditionary force, aimed at the suppression of the uprising of Pashtun tribes. This campaign was,severe and dangerous In the course of the operation Churchill showed bravery unconditional, although often the risk was superfluous, caused by the bravado, not a necessity. He wrote to his mother: «I want to make the reputation of the brave men more than anything else in this world.»
Debut in Politics In July, 1899, he received an offer to run for Parliament from the Conservative party from Oldham. The first attempt to take a place in the House of Commons was not a success, not by the fault of the Churchill, in the district dominated by nonconformists and the voters were unhappy with the recently adopted on the initiative of the conservative «Law on Church tithing».. Churchill, in the course of the election campaign announced his disagreement with the law, but it had the effect, and both the mandate of Oldham got the liberals.
The Minister of Internal Affairs February 14, 1910 at the age of 35 years Churchill occupies the post of the Minister of internal Affairs, one of the most influential in the country of the posts. Ministerial salary is 5,000 pounds (about 200 thousand in the modern equivalent), and he left a literary career, returning to this lesson only in 1923. Stay on as Minister has become one of the most complex and controversial stages in the political career of Winston Churchill. This period was marked by mass performances of the workers and the shares of women's suffrage societies. Action Churchill on subduing the riots were repeatedly subjected to harsh criticism from all sides of the political spectrum, moreover, as the Minister of internal Affairs he was responsible even in cases, when the person does not interfere in what is going on.
The First Lord Of The Admiralty Formally, the transition to the Admiralty was a decrease of - the Ministry of internal Affairs was considered as one of the three most important government institutions. Nevertheless Churchill without hesitation accepted the offer of the Asquith, fleet, has always been one of the most important instruments of British geopolitics, in this period was one of the biggest upgrades in its history.
The First World War UK officially entered the First world war 3 August 1914, but already on July 28, on the day, when Austria- Hungary declared war on Serbia, Churchill ordered the fleet to move on militant positions near the coast of England, permission for it was received by the Prime Minister of hindsight. In 1915 he became one of the initiators of the Darnelskoi operation that ended disastrously for the allied troops and caused a government crisis. Responsibility for the fiasco Churchill largely took upon himself, and when it was formed a new coalition government, the conservatives demanded his resignation from the post of first Lord of the Admiralty. Within a few months he held the post Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster, and on 15 November resigned and went to the Western Front, where the rank of Colonel in command of the 6th battalion of the Scottish Royal Fusiliers, occasionally to the Parliament to participate in the debates.
The Second World War on September 1, 1939 Germany invaded Poland - the Second world war began. on September 3, at 11 a.m. in the war officially entered the United Kingdom, and within 10 days and all of the British Commonwealth. On the same day, Winston Churchill was invited to take the post of First Lord of the Admiralty with a voting right in the Council of War. There is a legend that having learned of this, the ships КВМФ of great Britain and naval bases exchanged a message with the text: «Winston is back». Although documentary evidence that the message was really sent by, still not detected. In spite of the fact that the land after the defeat of the Polish army and the capitulation of Poland of active hostilities have been carried out, was the so-called «strange war», the military actions on the sea almost immediately moved into the active phase.
The Anti-Nazi Coalition on August 12, 1941 aboard the battleship «Prince of Wales» is held the meeting of Churchill and Roosevelt. During three days of the policy worked out the text of the Atlantic Charter. 13 August 1942, Churchill flew to Moscow for a meeting with Stalin, and the signing of the anti-Hitler Charter. 1943 Tehran conference. From 9 to 19 October 1944, Churchill is in Moscow for talks with Stalin, which proposed to divide Europe into spheres of influence, however, the Soviet side, judging from the transcript of the talks, rejected these initiatives, calling them «dirty».
After the War When a close victory over Germany became apparent, his wife and relatives advised to Churchill to retire, leaving political activities at the height of his glory, but he has decided to participate in the elections, which were scheduled for the may of 1945. To the end of the war came to the fore economic problems, the UK economy has suffered heavy losses, increased external debt, have deteriorated relations with the overseas colonies After the defeat in the elections Churchill officially became the leader of the opposition, but in fact had not been active and regularly attended the meetings of the chamber, he intensively engaged in literary activity, the status of the world celebrities helped to conclude a number of large contracts with periodicals. on September 19, speaking at the University of Zurich Churchill gave a speech, which called for former enemies Germany, France and Britain to reconciliation and creation of a «United States of Europe»
Death 10 December 1953 he was awarded the Nobel prize for literature. In 1953, for the consideration of the Nobel Committee had received two nominations - Winston Churchill, Ernest Hemingway. Preference was given to the British policy. The huge contribution of Hemingway in literature was awarded a year later. on April 5, 1955, Churchill resigned from the post of Prime Minister. on July 27, 1964 in the last times was present at the session of the house of Commons. Churchill died on January 24, 1965. By order of the Queen of him have been set off in the государственному. Церемония the funeral was held on the scenario in advance written by Churchill.