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Liberalism Challenged via Foreign Policies SOC 30 Readings: Chap 7 Pages 232-248.

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Presentation on theme: "Liberalism Challenged via Foreign Policies SOC 30 Readings: Chap 7 Pages 232-248."— Presentation transcript:

1 Liberalism Challenged via Foreign Policies SOC 30 Readings: Chap 7 Pages 232-248

2  Post WWII International Relations  Yalta Accords  Bretton-Woods Agreement  Containment  Expansionism  Truman Doctrine  Marshall Plan  The Iron Curtain Descends  Berlin Divided Summary

3 A Chilling Prediction …there will emerge two centers of world significance: a socialist center, drawing to itself the countries that incline towards socialism, and a capitalist center, drawing to itself the countries that incline towards capitalism. Battle between these two centers for command of the world economy will decide the fate of capitalism and of communism in the entire world. ~Josef Stalin, 1927

4  Feb 1945  Yalta Accords in USSR  May 1945  Germany surrenders  Berlin divided  July 1945  Potsdam Conference  War w/ Japan  Aug 1945  Atomic bombs  Soviet Paranoia End of WWII Timeline You can see page 236 in your textbook as well

5 Changing Leadership USSR: -1953: Stalin 1953-55: Malenkov 1955-1964: Khrushchev 1964-1982: Brezhnev USA: -1945: F.D. Roosevelt 1945-1953: Harry Truman 1953-1961: Eisenhower 1961-1963: Kennedy 1963-1969: Johnson 1969-1974: Nixon 1974-1977: Ford 1977-1981: Carter 1981-1989: Reagan Britain: 1940-1945: Churchill 1945-1951: Attlee 1951-1955: Churchill 1955-1957: Eden 1957-1963: Macmillan 1963-1964: Douglas- Home 1964-1970: Wilson

6  Meeting between Churchill, Stalin, and Roosevelt  WWII is drawing to a close  Plan their remaining actions  Redraw the map of Europe  However, there was a fundamental ideological divide The Yalta Accords

7 Stalin: Ensure Soviet Union security Set up Communist- controlled governments in countries bordering the USSR Roosevelt: International security & economic prosperity depends on establishing democracies Capitalist economic actions & principles Churchill: Balance of power in Europe A defeated Germany = power vacuum Soviets might fill that vacuum (threatens British military interests)

8 Causes for Tension  Postwar treatment of Germany  Stalin: wanted reparations & a weakened Germany  Allies: healthy German economy & unified Germany  US aid to postwar Europe  Strings attached which supported American ideals  Stalin refused aid, even with 25 million homeless Soviets  No common enemy for the USA and Soviet Union

9 Emerging Superpowers  Europe devastated by ground and air forces in WWII  Asia (Japan) devastated by war & atomic weaponry  This leaves the USA and Soviet Union

10 The United Nations  At Yalta, Roosevelt recognized the fraying seams of the alliance with Stalin  He wanted to postpone the controversial issues  Would be settled by an international body  Ideally, this body could succeed where the League of Nations had failed  But for the UN to be a success, both the USA and USSR had to participate

11 Bretton-Woods Agreement  Team effort between American and European economists  Establishes the American dollar as the world’s reserve currency  Fixes exchange rates between its 42 member countries  Creates two international organizations  International Monetary Fund – ensure economic stability  World Bank – encourage global development

12 Bretton-Woods Agreement  Roosevelt’s goal:  “…end the system of unilateral action, the exclusive alliances, the spheres of influence, the balances of power, and all the expedients that have been tried for centuries and have always failed”  Stalin & Churchill’s goals:  Believe in “…spheres of influence, the balances of power…”  Armed force, not international organization, would shape the post-war world

13 Superpowers Begin to Clash  Both the USA and the USSR aimed to enlarge their territorial and ideological influences beyond their country’s borders  This is called Expansionism  Accomplished through the establishment of spheres of influence  Ultimately, both superpowers feared each other and attempted to thwart each other’s expansionism alternative means  This is called Containment

14 Spheres of Influence

15 Truman Doctrine  An international relations policy set forth by Harry Truman in 1947  Represents the beginning of the containment policy to stop Soviet expansion  The USA lent support to two nations:  Greece  Greek communists are fighting government forces. Being funded by Tito, a communist dictator in Yugoslavia  $400 million lent  Turkey  $100 million lent

16 Marshall Plan

17  $13-17 billion lent to European countries  Goal: Help countries recover from WWII  Conditions:  Balance budgets  Stop inflation  Stabilize exchange rates  The Soviet Union rejected aid  Although it was offered, how likely do you believe the USA would have lent money to a communist country?

18 The Iron Curtain “From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic, an iron curtain has descended across the continent. Behind that line lie all the capitals of the ancient states of Central and Eastern Europe. Warsaw, Berlin, Prague, Vienna, Budapest…all these famous cities and the populations around them lie in what I must call the Soviet sphere, and all are subject in one form or another, not only to Soviet influence but to very high and, in many cases, increasing measure of control from Moscow… ~Churchill, “Iron Curtain speech”, 1946

19 The Iron Curtain

20 Berlin Divided The city itself was divided into four occupation zones Note: it is 176 km within the Soviet controlled portion of Germany…

21 Berlin Divided West Berlin  Capitalist pocket  Eagerly accepts Marshall Plan East Berlin  Communist  Rejects Marshall Plan Stalin saw West Berlin as an unwelcome Capitalist intrusion

22 Berlin Airlift  In 1948, Stalin blocked all road, rail, and transportation to West Berlin  2.1 million cut off from supplies  An attempt to force the Western forces out of Berlin  Western response: fly supplies to West Berliners  At the height of the lift, flights were landing at the rate of 1 every 3 minutes!

23 Berlin Airlift  Over a period of 11 months, the USA, Britain, and France supplied West Berliners with all they needed  On May 12, 1949, Stalin finally lifted the blockade

24 Berlin Airlift: Legacy In the spring of 1948, Stalin began his campaign to force the Allied powers from Berlin. Hoping to bring the city under communist control, he tried to break the spirit of its people. On June 24, 1948, he imposed a blockade on Berlin. What Stalin failed to judge, however, was the will of Berliners to defy intimidation, and the resolve of the Allied forces to see them through. ~Warren Christopher US State Dispatch See any bias?...

25 Again, we see the divide… Allied Actions  Truman Doctrine  Marshall Plan  North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)  Anti-Soviet Alliance Soviet Actions  Communist Information Bureau (ComInform)  Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (CoMEcon)  Warsaw Pact  Anti-Western Alliance

26 NATO  Early form begun in 1948  Officially formed in 1949  Intergovernmental military alliance around the Atlantic  Originally planned as a deterrent for communist expansion  System of collective defense – member states agree to mutual defense in response to an attack by an external party

27 NATO Greatly expands the sphere of influence of Western Capitalism

28 Warsaw Pact  Warsaw Treaty Organization of Friendship, Cooperation, and Mutual Assistance  Mutual defense pact between 8 communist states in central Europe  Founded by the USSR in opposition to NATO, particularly the integration of West Germany into NATO in 1955  The Warsaw Pact was signed in 1955

29 Warsaw Pact Greatly solidifies the sphere of influence of Communism

30 Soviet Nuclear Bomb  Both the USA and USSR researched hydrogen bombs  The USA was a nuclear power  But in 1949, the Soviet Union detonated their first hydrogen bomb  The Soviet threat was now very real to the USA

31 The Stage Is Set By 1950, Europe was divided into two hostile military blocs, each dominated by a superpower in possession of a nuclear arsenal

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