Compare US and Soviet wartime posters: http://slon.ru/russia/photo/voennye_plaka ty_vtoroy_mirovoy_nayti_10_otlichiy- 145.xhtml http://slon.ru/russia/photo/voennye_plaka ty_vtoroy_mirovoy_nayti_10_otlichiy- 145.xhtml
July 1942: Massive German offensive in southern Russia The city of Stalingrad is besieged The turning point of World War II August 23: Massive German bombing destroys 80% of the city’s residential buildings Fighting in the city: average life expectancy of the Soviet soldier – 24 hours
The Battle of Stalingrad claimed over two million casualties, more than any other battle in human history, and was also one of the longest: it raged for 199 days. Killed, wounded or captured at Stalingrad: Germans and allies: 850,000 Soviets: 1,130,000 (incl. 40,000 civilians)
Churchill: Stalin is a "devil"-like tyrant leading a vile system”. (it didn’t prevent him from making a territorial deal w. Stalin, however) Roosevelt: “ I just have a hunch that Stalin is not that kind of a man.... I think that if I give him everything I possibly can and ask for nothing from him in return, noblesse oblige, he won't try to annex anything and will work with me for a world of democracy and peace.” James Byrnes, member of US delegation: “It was not a question of what we would let the Russians do, but what we could get the Russians to do."
Major decisions of the Yalta Conference 1. Unconditional surrender of Germany 2. Division of Germany into 4 occupied zones 3. Demilitarization and denazification of Germany 4. Germany’s reparations, including by forced labour of its soldiers 5. A new govt in Poland, including non-Communists 6. Changes of Poland’s borders 7. Return of citizens to USSR and Yugoslavia 8. Soviet Union will participate in the creation of the UNO 9. Stalin agreed to attack Japan within 90 days of Germany’s surrender. 10. Nazi war criminals were to be hunted down and brought to justice. 11. A "Committee on Dismemberment of Germany" was to be set up.
Hitler’s last public speech: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HRSn qLFPQ2A&feature=related http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HRSn qLFPQ2A&feature=related
US and British aid to the Soviet ally, 1941-45: Food - $1.5 bln. in Automobiles – 427,000 Warplanes – 22,000 Tanks – 13,000 Warships – over 500 Explosives – 350,000 tons Other supplies Total estimated cost of Allied aid to USSR in contemporary prices – $100 bln.
The Battle of Berlin: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eDxCMuQhe gs http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eDxCMuQhe gs Hitler phones Stalin (a satire): http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9pbIrMtmU9 8&feature=related http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9pbIrMtmU9 8&feature=related
The Battle of Berlin 17 days 3.3 mln. men Total losses: 0.5 mln.
August 1945: Defeat of Japanese forces in Manchuria
Japanese-American historian T. Hasegawa: Soviet war on Japan was the decisive factor for Japanese surrender – not the atom bomb http://books.google.ca/books?id=iPju1MrqgU4C&pri ntsec=frontcover&dq=racing+the+enemy&hl=en&sa =X&ei=BM_GT_73B8fJ6gGV7KTMCw&ved=0CDgQ 6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=racing%20the%20enemy& f=false http://books.google.ca/books?id=iPju1MrqgU4C&pri ntsec=frontcover&dq=racing+the+enemy&hl=en&sa =X&ei=BM_GT_73B8fJ6gGV7KTMCw&ved=0CDgQ 6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=racing%20the%20enemy& f=false
Soviet losses in World War II Over 27 mln. killed (13.6% of the population) Of those who survived, 29 mln. took part in the fighting (including 0.8 mln. women) Battlefield losses – 11.5 mln. (Germany lost 8.6 mln.) 5.8 mln. POWs (of them 3 mln. died in concentration camps) 1,710 cities and 70,000 villages completely or partially destroyed 40,000 hospitals, 84,000 schools, 43,000 libraries destroyed Historically unprecedented level of damage suffered by a country