21.0 Pre-reading activities 1.Winston Churchill2.World War Two3. Hitler
31. 1.Winston ChurchillThe Right Honourable Sir Winston Leonard Spencer Churchill ( ), the son of Lord Randolph Churchill and an American mother, was educated at Harrow and Sandhurst. After a brief but eventful career in the army, he became a Conservative Member of Parliament in He held many high posts in Liberal and Conservative governments during the first three decades of the century. At the outbreak of the Second World War, he was appointed First Lord of the Admiralty - a post which he had earlier held from 1911 to In May, 1940, he became Prime Minister and Minister of Defence and remained in office until He took over the premiership again in the Conservative victory of 1951 and resigned in However, he remained a Member of Parliament until the general election of 1964, when he did not seek re-election. Queen Elizabeth II conferred on Churchill the dignity of Knighthood and invested him with the insignia of the Order of the Garter in Among the other countless honours and decorations he received, special mention should be made of the honorary citizenship of the United States which President Kennedy conferred on him in 1963.
4Churchill's literary career began with campaign reports: The Story of the Malakand Field Force (1898) and The River War (1899), an account of the campaign in the Sudan and the Battle of Omdurman. In 1900, he published his only novel, Savrola, and, six years later, his first major work, the biography of his father, Lord Randolph Churchill. His other famous biography, the life of his great ancestor, the Duke of Marlborough, was published in four volumes between 1933 and Churchill's history of the First World War appeared in four volumes under the title of The World Crisis ( ); his memoirs of the Second World War ran to six volumes ( /54). After his retirement from office, Churchill wrote a History of the English-speaking Peoples (4 vols., ). His magnificent oratory survives in a dozen volumes of speeches, among them The Unrelenting Struggle (1942), The Dawn of Liberation (1945), and Victory (1946). Churchill, a gifted amateur painter, wrote Painting as a Pastime (1948). An autobiographical account of his youth, My Early Life, appeared in 1930.
6Adolf Hitler was born on 20th April, 1889, in the small Austrian town of Braunau near the German border. Both Hitler's parents had come from poor peasant families. His father Alois Hitler, the illegitimate son of a housemaid, was an intelligent and ambitious man and later became a senior customs official.Klara Hitler was Alois' third wife. Alois was twenty-three years older than Klara and already had two children from his previous marriages. Klara and Alois had five children but only Adolf and a younger sister, Paula, survived to become adults.Alois, who was fifty-one when Adolf was born, was extremely keen for his son to do well in life. Alois did have another son by an earlier marriage but he had been a big disappointment to him and eventually ended up in prison for theft. Alois was a strict father and savagely beat his son if he did not do as he was told.
7Competition was much tougher in the larger secondary school and his reaction to not being top of the class was to stop trying. His father was furious as he had high hopes that Hitler would follow his example and join the Austrian civil service when he left school. However, Hitler was a stubborn child and attempts by his parents and teachers to change his attitude towards his studies were unsuccessful.Hitler also lost his popularity with his fellow pupils. They were no longer willing to accept him as one of their leaders. As Hitler liked giving orders he spent his time with younger pupils. He enjoyed games that involved fighting and he loved re-enacting battles from the Boer War. His favourite game was playing the role of a commando rescuing Boers from English concentration camps.The only teacher Hitler appeared to like at secondary school was Leopold Potsch, his history master. Potsch, like many people living in Upper Austria, was a German Nationalist. Potsch told Hitler and his fellow pupils of the German victories over France in 1870 and 1871 and attacked the Austrians for not becoming involved in these triumphs. Otto von Bismarck, the first chancellor of the German Empire, was one of Hitler's early historical heroes.Hitler's other main interest at school was art. His father was incensed when Hitler told him that instead of joining the civil service he was going to become an artist. The relationship between Hitler and his father deteriorated and the conflict only ended with the death of Alois Hitler in 1903.Hitler was thirteen when his father died. His death did not cause the family financial hardships. The Hitler family owned their own home and they also received a lump sum and a generous civil service pension.
91.3 student presentationbiographical information about Churchill and Hitter;background information about Hitler’s attack of the soviet Russia
102.0 Introduction to the text Public speechCall on the British public to fight against Nazi GermanPurpose: to persuade, i.e., to defend what is true and to attack what is false by the use of reason
112.1 The effective devices employed by Churchill in his speech: the phonetic level: alliterationthe lexical level: connotative meaning of wordsthe syntactic level: parallel structureFigures of speech: metaphor, repetition, inversion.Image building
122.2 General features of the text Questions to consider while readingWhen and how did the Germans attack the Soviet Union?What was Churchill’s reaction to the news of Hitler’s invasion of Russia? Why?Why did Churchill side with the Soviet Union since he had always been an avowed enemy of communism?What policy did Churchill declare Britain would pursue?What, according to Churchill, was Hitler’s motive in invading Russia? Do you agree with him?
132.3 Analysis of rhetorical devices alliterationmetaphorrepetitionparallelismonomatopoeiapersonification
142.4 parallel structuresIn his speech, Churchill uses a lot of repetitions and parallel structures …1) We will never parleyWe will never negotiate with Hitler or any of his gang.2) We shall fight him by landWe shall fight him by seaWe shall fight him in the air3) behind all this glarebehind all this storm I see…4) I see the Russian soldiers standing…I see them guarding…I see the ten thousands villages…I see advancing upon…I also see the dull…I see the German bombers…I see that small group…