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March 21, 2002SITE 20021 Using Moral Development Theory to Teach K-12 Cyber Ethics Melissa Dark CERIAS, Purdue University.

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Presentation on theme: "March 21, 2002SITE 20021 Using Moral Development Theory to Teach K-12 Cyber Ethics Melissa Dark CERIAS, Purdue University."— Presentation transcript:

1 March 21, 2002SITE Using Moral Development Theory to Teach K-12 Cyber Ethics Melissa Dark CERIAS, Purdue University

2 March 21, 2002SITE Impact of Technology Technology impacts “all” aspects of life. Communication Finances Shopping Research Entertainment Education Television Commercial Example

3 March 21, 2002SITE New Societal Skill Set NSF Study (1996): by 2010 US will need more than 700,000 scientists/engineers proficient in content and technical skills Information literacy is critical. Internet can serve as dynamic framework for promoting new skills (Brown, 2000) Technology assists in teaching inquiry, information gathering, collaboration, etc (Rice & Wilson, 1999)

4 March 21, 2002SITE Tech Integration: Topic Educators, researchers, politicians, etc. Technology integration= rapid rate Professional development= minimal “My students know more than I do!” Schools incorporate technical skills …but what about the “soft” skills?

5 March 21, 2002SITE Ethics Defined

6 March 21, 2002SITE Industry IT Acknowledgment: Unethical Behavior is Costly Fines, low morale, negative publicity, recruitment issues (Nash 1993) Information Week Report (Wilder & Soat, 2001) 62% employees monitor WWW use 54% monitor use Lands End (Wilder & Soat, 2001) Random IT security audits

7 March 21, 2002SITE Acquiring an Ethical Framework Ethical behavior is expected…where do you learn it? How can we expect students to “know” about their online ethical responsibility if it is never formally discussed? Is it ethical to teach the technical skill without addressing the ethical issues? Would you give your 8yr old the keys to your car?

8 March 21, 2002SITE Ethics and Cyber Ethics Defined Ethics: Set of principles of right conduct (American Heritage Dictionary, 2001) General conception of right/wrong that transcend religion and law (Webster’s Dictionary, 2001) Right or just behavior (Gibney, 1999) Cyber Ethics: application of ethics into the online environment (Ethics Connection, 2000)

9 March 21, 2002SITE Cyber Ethics in K-12 Curriculum Schools are providing technical knowledge without addressing appropriate use. Majority of children---significant use of ethical principles between age (Geide, et al) Internet and technology use augments the use of these ethical principles Children as victims and perpetrators. Portrayal of hackers as “new” cowboys Passive encouragement by adults

10 March 21, 2002SITE Illegal Activities Conducted by Kids Distribution of Pornography Sexual Harassment Credit Card Theft Malicious Hacking Software Piracy Illegal Stock Purchases Financial Tampering Copyright Infringement Plagiarism Counterfeiting Rings (Marsh, 2000; personal knowledge)

11 March 21, 2002SITE Cyber Ethics Surveys Scholastic Survey April 2000; 47,325 elementary/middle school kids Should hacking into someone else’s computer (without permission) be considered a crime? 48% NO Vincent & Meche (2001) Survey 729 HS students If someone uses “designated work-only” for personal purposes, is that unethical? 81% YES Would you do use this for personal use? 49% YES

12 March 21, 2002SITE Determining Cyber Ethic Age Appropriate Activities Just as infants learn to crawl before they walk, people must learn to care for themselves before considering the needs of others. (Elliott, 1997) Educators feel overwhelmed at the notion of determining appropriate moral development activities. Many feel inadequately prepared for the topic.

13 March 21, 2002SITE Piaget’s Theory Moral development would occur at specific age-orientated stages. Heteronomous Morality: 6-10yrs Adherence to rules created by others Justice will prevail; good over evil “morality” of a decision based upon the consequence

14 March 21, 2002SITE Piaget Continued… Autonomous Morality: (10yrs-adult) Rules understood, but not sacred Intent of the person rather than consequence determines the morality of a decision. Question rules in hypothetical situations.

15 March 21, 2002SITE Important Influence of Piaget: In order for kids to refine and increase the sophistication of their moral analysis skills: Must engage in conflict resolution Must work collaboratively Analysis must be constructivist in nature

16 March 21, 2002SITE Kohlberg’s Theory Built on Piaget…elaborated the stages. Moral development= more gradual Stages emerge from: Individual thinking Reflection Analysis of Moral Dilemmas (Crain, 2000)

17 LevelStage Preconventiona l Stage 1: Fear and Punishment Stage 2: Hope for a Reward Conventional Stage 3: Peer Approval Stage 4: Adherence to Law and Order Postconvention al Stage 5: Inherent Social Contract Stage 6: Universal Ethical Principles Kohlberg’s Six Stages of Moral Development (Kohlberg, 1971)

18 March 21, 2002SITE Importance of Kohlberg: As personal beliefs are challenged via debate and discussion, the individual must respond with a more comprehensive analysis….resulting in the progression of the stages. (Kohlberg, et al 1975) Moral analysis activities in K-12 as a critical step of development (Crain, 2000)

19 March 21, 2002SITE Carol Gilligan: Hello? What about the girls? Criticized inherent gender bias of Kohlberg’s work--only males studied. Does NOT promote gender-based morals…masculine/feminine in both sexes (Elliott, 1997) Theory known as the “Morality of Care”

20 March 21, 2002SITE Gilligan’s Morality of Care First Level: Care of Self Survival mode Second Level: Care of Others Social benefit of sacrificing for others Third Level: Integration of the Care of Self and Others “being moral means minimizing pain and harm for everyone” (Elliott, 1991)

21 March 21, 2002SITE Which Theory Works Best for K-12 Cyber Ethics? All three have been scrutinized and highly criticized. Piaget---too vague; little structure Gilligan---seemed hard to put into K-12; reaction of traditional teachers to it Kohlberg---gender biased; highly structured…but, seemed to fit well with K-12 and curricular development

22 March 21, 2002SITE Cyber Ethics Instructional Strategies: Yearlong curricular component. Moral Development programs must be integrated within regular classroom curriculum (Nucci, 1987) Strong role model---teachers/administrators enable kids to learn vicariously (Sivin & Bialo, 1992) Issues must regularly incorporated and relevant to the students (Perry, 1970)

23 March 21, 2002SITE Using Kohlberg’s Stages to Structure K-12 Cyber Ethics Activities

24 March 21, 2002SITE Cyber Ethics Resources Computer Ethics Institute Ten Commandments for Computer Ethics CERIAS K-12 Site: This presentation is housed there under PRESENTATIONS. University of Montana Practical Ethics Center

25 March 21, 2002SITE Melissa Dark CERIAS, Purdue University

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