2Example of a Moral Dilemma: Heinz and the Drug “In Europe a woman was near death from cancer. One drug might save her, a form of radium that a druggist in the same town had recently discovered. The druggist was charging $2,000, ten times what the drug cost him to make. The sick woman’s husband, Heinz, went to everyone he knew to borrow the money, but he could only get together about half of what it cost. He told the druggist that his wife was dying and asked him to sell it cheaper or let him pay later, but the druggist said “No.” The husband got desperate and broke into the man’s store to steal the drug for his wife. Should the husband have done that?” (Kohlberg, 1969, p. 376).
3Morality Development: Introduction (I) Why consider moral development in education?Moral issues embedded in curriculum (especially History)75% of HS students admitted to cheating on tests (Bracey, 2005)Cheating may be on the rise from ES to College (Goodman, 2005; Selingo, 2004)May lead to other immoral acts after school (i.e. questionable accounting practices)Ultimately, beliefs about right and wrong influence behavior
4Morality Development: Piaget (I) Responses to moral problems can be divided into two broad stages: Moral Realism (Morality of Constraint)– Rules are sacred, consequences determine all guilt (6 yr olds) Moral Relativism (Morality of Cooperation)– Rules are flexible, intent is important in determining guilt (12 yr olds)
5Morality Development: Kohlberg (I) Level I: Pre-conventional: Egocentric orientation focusing on moral consequences for the self; reasoning found until about 10 years of ageStageDescriptionMoral reasoning based on immediate consequences for the individual. An act is moral if a person isn’t punished for it. It is immoral if the person is punished.1: Punishment - Obedience2: Market ExchangeORInstrumental RelativistMoral reasoning based on reciprocity. An act is moral if a similar act occurs in return (i.e. satisfies own needs)
6Morality Development: Kohlberg (II) Level II: Conventional: Moral reasoning linked to perspectives of, and concerns for, others (i.e. loyalty, obeying the law, family obligation); typical of 10 to 20 yr olds.StageDescription3: Interpersonal HarmonyOrGood boy-nice girlMoral reasoning based on concern for others or the opinions of others. An act is moral if others demonstrate similar acts, or it helps others (i.e. behavior likely to please others)Moral reasoning based on rules, laws, and orderly society. An act is moral if it follows rules or promotes an orderly society.4: Law and Order
7Morality Development: Kohlberg (III) Level III: Post-conventional. Reasoning transcends society’s rules; reflects an understanding that rules sometimes need to be changed/ignored.StageDescriptionMoral reasoning based on principled agreements among people. An act is moral if it is consistent with a principled agreement. (ex: Bill of Rights)5: Social ContractMoral reasoning based on abstract principles. An act is moral if it is consistent with an abstract principle that transcends an individual’s society.6: Universal Ethical
8Summary of Kohlberg’s Six Stage Theory of Morality Development: 1: Punishment and ObedienceMoral reasoning based on immediate consequences for the individual.2: Market ExchangeMoral reasoning based on reciprocity. An act is moral if a similar act occurs in return.3: Interpersonal HarmonyMoral reasoning based on concern for others or the opinions of others.4: Law and OrderMoral reasoning based on rules, laws, and an orderly society.5: Social ContractMoral reasoning based on principled agreements among people. 6: Universal PrinciplesMoral reasoning based on abstract principles.
9Morality Development: Exercise (I) 1. If I stay out I will be in big trouble with my parents.Stage 1: Punishment and ObediencePreconventional Ethics: Young children, some teenagersNobody’s doing anything anyway so I won’t be missing anything.Stage 2: Market ExchangeMy parents and I agreed that midnight was fair, and you can’t go back on your agreements.Stage 5: Social ContractPostconventional Ethics: Middle school to high school students4. If I stay out my parents will be worried.Stage 3: Interpersonal HarmonyConventional Ethics: Middle school to high school students
10Morality Development: Exercise (II) It’s the curfew, so I’ll be in by midnight.Stage 4: Law and orderConventional Ethics: Middle school to high schoolstudentsMy friends have curfews, too, and they’re going to be home by then.Stage 3: Interpersonal Harmony
11Piaget, Kohlberg, and Gilligan: Moral Development Criticisms of Kohlberg’s TheoryAcceleration of moral development through instruction is limitedMoral dilemmas are too removed from everyday social interactions Theory does not adequately address micromoral issues Too much emphasis on moral reasoning and not enough on moral behavior Research sample (white males) limits the generalizability of the findings
12Morality Development: Gender Differences Are there gender differences? Do men and women approach moral dilemmas differently?Some suggest:Men: judgment on abstract concepts (justice, rules, individual rights)Women: Interpersonal connections and attention to human needsUltimately, findings mixedKohlberg focused exclusively on cognitive aspects of moral reasoning/development
13Piaget, Kohlberg, and Gilligan: Moral Development Gilligan’s View of Identity and Moral DevelopmentStudent of Kohlberg and later became critical of some of himFemales develop along different pathPreconventional. Care is egocentricConventional. Care results from internalized focus on others, while neglecting oneselfPostconventional. Critical of approach in Conventional stage; Learn to balance caring for self with caring for others.