Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development Abstract thinking Information Processing Perspective More sophisticated working memory and faster processing ability Quantitative advances in long-term memory
Working Memory and Processing Speed Have adult-like working memory and processing speed, enables them to process information efficiently Content Knowledge, Strategies, and Metacognitive Skill Greater knowledge of the work facilitates understanding and memory of new experiences Better able to identify task-appropriate strategies and monitor effectiveness of those strategies Problem Solving and Reasoning Solve problems analytically by relying on math or logic, able to detect weaknesses in scientific evidence and logical arguments
Kohlberg’s Theory of Moral Development Cultural variations Gilligan’s Progression of Moral Development
Created narratives of moral dilemmas and studied the reasoning process that people underwent when considering the problem All possible choices have both positive and negative consequences Classic (1969) story of Heinz and his dying wife Presented narratives to people of different ages Developed stages of moral reasoning to reflect qualitative changes at different stages
Kohlberg’s Stages of Moral Reasoning Level 1Preconventional LevelPunishment and Reward Stage 1Obedience OrientationObedience to authority Stage 2Instrumental Orientation Nice behavior in exchange for future favors Level 2Conventional LevelSocial Norms Stage 3Interpersonal NormsLive up to others’ expectations Stage 4Social System MoralityFollow the rules to maintain order Level 3Postconventional Level Moral Codes Stage 5Social ContractAdhere to a social contract when it is valid Stage 6Universal Ethical Principles Personal moral system based on abstract principles
Kohlberg’s theory is very Western and reflects Judeo-Christian values not shared in all cultures, leading to different responses to moral dilemmas.
Gilligan also noted that women might have different motivations behind their moral reasoning than men. Women = emphasis on concern for others Men = emphasis on justice Stage 1: Preoccupation with one’s own needs Stage 2: Caring for others, especially those in need Stage 3: Uniting of caring for others and caring for self; caring for all
Factors that can promote more sophisticated moral reasoning: Noticing one’s current thinking is inadequate Observing others reasoning at a more advanced levels Discuss moral issues with peers, teachers, parents Involvement in a religious community that connects adolescents to a network of caring peers and adults Not all people achieve the highest stages of moral reasoning