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Shampoo How to formulate solutions. Lesson Topics Shampoo Market Overview Consumer Problems Surfactant Science Formulating a shampoo Testing.

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Presentation on theme: "Shampoo How to formulate solutions. Lesson Topics Shampoo Market Overview Consumer Problems Surfactant Science Formulating a shampoo Testing."— Presentation transcript:

1 Shampoo How to formulate solutions

2 Lesson Topics Shampoo Market Overview Consumer Problems Surfactant Science Formulating a shampoo Testing

3 Lesson Objectives Shampoo Market Overview –Introduce the shampoo market Consumer Problems –Explain the problems shampoo formulas are designed to fix Surfactant Science –Discuss surfactant properties –How they are relevant to cosmetics Formulating a solution –Dissect a shampoo formula –Explaining what ingredients are used and why Testing –Explain how to test a shampoo

4 Shampoo

5 Shampoos Solution cosmetic designed to clean hair and leave it a more manageable state Solutions - one of the simplest types of cosmetic formulas

6 Shampoo Market Overall Market –Hair care market estimated ~ $40 Billion worldwide –Amount of money spent in US on Shampoo/conditioner $2.26 billion (Food, Drug, Mass market)* *Does not include Walmart

7 US Top Brands BRAND Pantene – P&G Head & Shoulders – P&G Herbal Essences – P&G Suave - Unilever Garnier (Fructis) – L’Oreal Tresemme – Alberto Culver Matrix (Biolage) – L’Oreal L'Oreal (Vives) – L’Oreal Dove - Unilever Private Label John Frieda - Kao $ MARKET SHARE 16 7.6 7.5 6.9 6.6 4.0 3.9 3.8 3.3 3.2 *Data from IRI covering 52 weeks ending 5/2009

8 US Top Brands BRAND Suave - Unilever Pantene – P&G VO5 – Alberto Culver Herbal Essences – P&G Garnier (Fructis) – L’Oreal Head & Shoulders – P&G L'Oreal (Vives) – L’Oreal Tresemme – Alberto Culver Units sold (millions) 20.9 19.5 11.8 11.5 10.6 7.5 5.4 5.2 *Data from IRI covering 52 weeks ending 5/2009

9 Shampoo Market Types of shampoo (marketing) –Normal –Extra body (volumizing, thickening, etc) –Moisturizing (smoothing, shine, restore) –Strengthening –Curl –2 in 1 –Color treated –Color Enhancing –Baby (tear-free) –Natural

10 Shampoo Market Specialty –Anti-dandruff –Anti-lice –Hair loss treatments Significantly Different –Powdered shampoos –No-rinse shampoo –Co-washing

11 Consumer Problems Clean hair / oil removal Moisturize Easier to comb Prevent frizz Shine Volume Medicated –Anti-dandruff –Anti-lice –Hair loss

12 Addressing the problems Problem Clean hair / oil removal Moisturize Easier to comb Prevent frizz Shine Volume Medicated –Anti-dandruff –Anti-lice –Hair loss Technology Surfactants Conditioning agents –Anti-dandruff agents –Acaracides –Minoxidyl

13 Surfactant Science

14 Surfactants Defined –Molecules compatible with water & oil –Surfactant = Surface Active Agent

15 Surfactant Molecule Hydrophilic = Lipophobic Hydrophobic = Lipophilic

16 Surfactant in solution Reduces surface tension Helps disperse oil in water (or water in oil)‏ Forms micelles to suspend particles

17 Surfactant Typical surfactant mixture –Surfactant is mixed with oil –Lipophilic tails orient with oil –Polar heads orient with water –Micelles are created Micelle formation Critical Micelle Concentration

18 Surfactant Solutions Depending on concentration different structures are formed Simple shampoos are basically surfactant solutions (no oils)‏

19 Surfactant Structures

20 Surfactant Functions Key in Shampoos –Cleaning / Detergency –Wetting –Dispersing –Foaming –Thickening –Conditioning Other functions –Emulsification –Solubilization –Penetration enhancement –Antimicrobial activity –Opacification

21 Detergency Two types of “dirt” in hair –Solid particulate –Oily deposits Solid particulates –From pollution, hair products –Adhere via Van der Waals forces –Anionics & non-ionics increase hydrophylicity of surface

22 Detergency How surfactants remove liquids –Remove dirt & grease from surfaces –Mechanism Surfactant orients along oil/water interface This lifts oil off surface suspending in solution Rinse water removes the oil micelle

23 Wetting Breaks down the inherent surface tension of water Water with surfactant can spread better on the hair Without SurfactantWith Surfactant

24 Dispersing Particles are suspended in the shampoo / water solution They are removed upon rinsing

25 Foaming Air is dispersed in a continuous liquid medium Air bubbles are surrounded by thin layers of liquid films Foam doesn’t contribute much to removal of dirt –Consumers like foam but it doesn’t really mean the product cleans better

26 Thickening Viscosity of surfactant solution can be affected by –Concentration of surfactant –Salt concentration –pH

27 Types of Surfactants Anionic –Negatively charged Amphoteric (Zwitterionic)‏ –capable of both positive & negative charges Cationic –Positively charged Nonionic –No charge

28 Anionic Surfactants These are the primary shampoo surfactants Alkyl Sulfates –Examples - SLS Alkyl Ether Sulfates –Example – ALES Alpha – Olefin Sulfonates –Examples

29 Anionic Surfactants Other types –Sulfosuccinates –Alkylbenzene Sulfonates –Acyl Methyltaurates –Acyl Sarcosinates –Acyl Isethionates –Acyl Polypeptide Condensates –Monoglyceride Sulfates –Fatty Glyceryl Ether Sulfonates

30 Anionics Why use them? –Excellent detergency –Relatively inexpensive –Good foaming –Highly stable Drawbacks –Can be irritating –Drying to hair

31 Amphoteric Surfactants Can have a positive or negative charge depending on the pH of the solution Zwitterionic Types –Cocamidopropyl Betaine –Cocoamphopropionate –Sodium Lauraminopropionate

32 Amphoteric Surfactants Why use them? –Good Detergency –Less Irritating than anionics –Helps thicken system –Helps improve foam Drawbacks –More expensive –Do not foam well enough on their own

33 Non Ionic Surfactants Surfactant molecules with no charge Types –Fatty Alkanolamides Lauramide DEA Cocamide DEA –Amine Oxides Lauramine Oxide Stearamine Oxide

34 Non Ionic Surfactants Why use them? –Foam enhancer –Reduce irritation –Increase viscosity –Conditioning effect –Anti-static effect –Solubilize fragrances –Baby Shampoos PEG-80 Sorbitan Laurate Drawbacks –Safety issues –More expensive –Do not foam well on their own

35 Cationics Positively charged surfactant molecules Types –Cetrimonium Chloride –Stearylalkonium Chloride Not used for shampoos –Don’t clean as well –Don’t rinse as well –Don’t foam as well

36 Shampoo Formulations

37 Shampoo Characteristics Aesthetics –Appearance Clear Pearlized –Thickness (Viscosity)‏ Foam –Creamy, rich to thin & loose Harshness Conditioning effects

38 Basic types of Shampoos Normal Volumizing Moisturizing 2 in 1 Baby Natural

39 Shampoo Performance

40 Shampoo Formula Water Surfactant Secondary Surfactant Preservative Conditioning agent Color Fragrance Feature Ingredients Specialty ingredients

41 Shampoo Formula Secondary Surfactant –Modify viscosity –Improve foam –Reduce irritation Aesthetic ingredients –Opacifying agent –Clarifying agents –Colorants

42 Shampoo Formula Conditioning agents –Silicones –Cationic polymers Preservatives Fragrance Feature Ingredients Formula Adjusters –Acid –Chelating agents

43 Cosmetic Formula sheet

44 Normal Shampoo Formula

45 Activity of Ingredients Many raw materials are sold diluted % Solids = Raw material – water Eg. ALS sold as 28% solids 32% of the supplied raw material is only ~9% solid ALS % Active is usually synonymous with % Solids

46 Volumizing Shampoo Formula

47 Volumizing Shampoo Higher level of surfactant Volumizing polymer (optional)‏ –Guar hydroxypropyltrimonium chloride

48 Moisturizing Shampoo Formula

49 Moisturizing Shampoo More gentle detergents Added conditioning ingredients –Polyquaternium-7 –Dimethicone Copolyol Pearlized – (optional)‏ –Glycol Stearate

50 2-in-1 Shampoo Formula

51 2 in 1 Shampoo Added conditioning ingredients –Dimethicone –Polyquaternium-10 Pearlized –Glycol Stearate Stabilizing agent (optional)‏ –Carbomer

52 Baby Shampoo Formula

53 Baby Shampoo More mild detergent system Compromise qualities for mildness –Foam –Detergency –Conditioning Minimize fragrance

54 Natural Shampoo Formula

55 Natural Shampoo Sulfate free detergent “Gentle” preservatives –No Parabens –No DMDM Hydantoin Natural extract ingredients Synthetic fragrance free?

56 Making the batch

57 Equipment Beakers Mixers Thermometer Stand Hot plate Scale Weigh boats Plastic wrap

58 Formulating Equipment

59 Shampoo Batching tips Cover batch with plastic wrap Record time, temp, changes Pre-weigh ingredients Weigh container prior to making batch –Compensate for water loss Take specification readings at the end –Adjust as needed –

60 Shampoo testing QA/QC Tests Performance Tests

61 Shampoo testing QA/QC Tests Specifications –Viscosity –pH –Appearance –Odor

62 Shampoo testing Use Tests –Try product yourself –Panel testing

63 Shampoo testing Tress testing –Combing –Feel / Softness –Shine

64 Shampoo testing Foam testing –Blender –Shake test

65 Shampoo testing Safety testing –Patch testing –Irritation tests

66 Shampoo Stability testing

67 Shampoo Summary Shampoo Market Overview –Big compared to other cosmetics Consumer Problems –Cleansing, conditioning primary problems Surfactant Science –Makes oil & water more compatible –Responsible for cleaning hair Formulating shampoos –6 types of shampoos Testing –Use tests, lab tests, and QC tests

68 Shampoos

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