The liquid crystalline phase is in the form of spherical lamellar bilayers or droplets. Contain layers of surfactant and water.
A lamellar droplet is held together by an intrinsic balance of various inter- and intradroplet forces. A stable structured liquid is achieved when the inter-and intralamellar forces are manipulated in such a way that phase separation is minimized or avoided.
* The length of the carbon chain strongly influence the ease of formulation and performance of the surfactant. A longer allyl chain Increases the hydrophobocity of the molecule, Lowers the critical micelle concentration (CMC) And usually, provides better soil removal characteristic
2. Alcohol ethoxylated nonionic surfactant The high aqueous solubility of alcohol ethoxylates makes them a useful ingredient in unstructured liquids. Excessive use of nonionic surfactants cause phase separation of HDLD. Studies have shown that product containig: LAS + alcohol ethoxylates lower the CMC provide improvements in the detergency.
3. Alkyl ether sulfates (AEOS) anionic surfactants. 4. Alkyl sulfates anionic surfactants 5. Polyhydroxy fatty acid amides (Glucamides) 6. Methyl ester sulfonates anionic surfactants. 7. Other surfactants : Soap is now used only as minor ingredient in HDLDs to provide foam control. A variety of other surfactants are also used primarily for specialty applications. They include amine oxides, amphoterics, and betains.
2) Defoamers Used to minimize excessive foaming. 3) Hydrotropes It is sometimes necessary to use hydrotopes to sulubilize all ingredients in an unstructured liquids. 4) Minors A number of ingredients, although used in small amounts serve very important roles. Preservatives are needed to inhibit the growth of microorganisms in aqueous products.