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Chapter 11 We the People: Putting the Constitution to Work 1789–1800.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 11 We the People: Putting the Constitution to Work 1789–1800."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 11 We the People: Putting the Constitution to Work 1789–1800

2 The First Presidency Washington Unanimously elected Takes oath April 30, 1789 Takes oath in New York City Washington’s leadership Believes in republicanism Shows strong sense of duty Aware of his role as major figure Precedents Knows he is setting precedents Republican title: “Mr. President” Brings dignity to office Wins respect abroad

3 The First Presidency The First Presidency (cont.’d) Early appointments Balances politics and sections Seeks and listens to men of ability First Cabinet Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson Attorney General Edmund Randolph Secretary of War Henry Knox Secretary of Treasury Alexander Hamilton Postmaster-general Samuel Osgood

4 The National Debt Funding the nation Hamilton in charge of nation’s finances Congress enacts 5% tariff on imports Hamilton proposes to repay foreign loans U.S. owes approximately $12 million Passes Congress easily First debate: funding the nation Hamilton proposes to repay domestic loans U.S. owes approximately $44 million Original owners sold bonds to speculators Critics do not want to pay speculators full value Congress votes to repay present owners at full value

5 The National Debt Assumption Hamilton proposes to assume state debts South opposes plan since their debt already paid Hamilton and Jefferson strike compromise Measure passes in return for putting capital on Potomac Bank of the United States (BUS) Hamilton proposes establishing strong BUS Jefferson: Congress does not have power; “strict construction” Hamilton: Congress does have power; “broad construction” Washington signs BUS bill

6 The National Debt Hamilton proposes protective tariff Believes it will encourage industrial growth Farmers oppose tariff due to higher prices Opponents fear retaliatory tariffs Measure does not pass

7 Troubles Abroad French Revolution Americans rejoice at first Revolution becomes more radical Conservative Americans fear equality and fraternity Reign of Terror King and Queen beheaded Robespierre tries to wipe out religion More Americans fearful of French Revolution

8 Troubles Abroad Troubles Abroad (cont.’d) France and England at War France goes to war with England and much of Europe Try to enlist U.S. aid Washington declared U.S. neutral Genet French minister to U.S. Ignores diplomatic protocol to promote Revolution Brings captured British vessels to American ports Washington orders him recalled

9 Troubles Abroad Troubles Abroad (cont.’d) Rule of 1756 British claim U.S. cannot trade with French West Indies British start seizing American vessels British impresses U.S. citizens into British navy Jay’s Treaty 1794 Threat of War between U.S. and Britain Washington sends Jay to negotiate Treaty pro-British; no mention of impressment Jefferson Republicans condemn treaty Political Parties developing Federalists – nationalist, social conservative, mercantile, Jeffersonian Republicans – planters, ideological democrats Pinckney’s Treaty 1795 Jay’s Treaty scares Spain, who needs an ally Spain agrees to U.S. demands U.S. gains free navigation of Mississippi U.S. gains right of deposit at New Orleans

10 The Tumultuous Northwest Northwest Territory Far less civilized than the east Still struggling as frontier farmers Dark and Bloody Ground Northwest Ordinance respected Indian claims New settlers violate those claims Government comes to settler’s rescue Large, well-armed Indian population U.S. militias lose two major battles 1790 General Harmar’s expedition 1791 General St. Clair’s expedition Washington sends “Mad Anthony” Wayne Defeat Indians at Battle of Fallen Timbers 1794 Treaty of Grenville 1795 Indians cede southern Ohio

11 Tumultuous Northwest Tumultuous Northwest (cont.’d) Whiskey Rebellion People are heavy whiskey drinkers Partly to fight disease Partly to fight isolation Whiskey cheap Whiskey major cash crop Grain too bulky to cross mountains Hamilton places excise tax on whiskey Westerners’ response: Whiskey Rebellion Federal government quickly crushes rebels Shows power of federal government

12 Presidency of John Adams Election of 1796 Federalist Adams vs. Republican Jefferson Hamilton tries to manipulate vote Adams new President Jefferson new Vice-President Adams in office A moderate man of integrity Neurotically insecure, raging temper Spends little time in capital Keeps Washington’s cabinet

13 Presidency of John Adams Presidency of John Adams (cont.’d) War Scare with France France angry over Jay’s treaty France starts seizing U.S. ships High Federalists demand war with France Adams sends peace delegation to France X,Y,Z affair French insult U.S. diplomats French demand bribe and loan High Federalists demand war Adams builds up navy for undeclared naval war

14 Presidency of John Adams Presidency of John Adams (cont.’d) Alien and Sedition Acts Jefferson’s Republicans still pro-French Federalists respond with Alien and Sedition Acts Make it harder to become citizen, easy to deport aliens Make it illegal to criticize government Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions Jefferson and Madison write resolutions Claim Alien and Sedition Acts unconstitutional Use state supremacy argument to try to nullify acts Raises major long-term issue, but acts stay in effect

15 Discussion Questions Evaluate the presidency of Washington. How successful was his administration? What were the causes, events and repercussions of the Whiskey Rebellion? What was the Bank of the United States? Why was it such a controversial issue to Federalists and Anti-Federalists? How did the war in Europe affect early American politics? Provide examples.

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