Presentation on theme: "Traits, Behaviors, and Relationships"— Presentation transcript:
1Traits, Behaviors, and Relationships Chapter 2Traits, Behaviors, and Relationships
2Chapter ObjectivesIdentify personal traits and characteristics that are associated with effective leaders.Recognize autocratic versus democratic leadership behavior and the impact of each.Know the distinction between people-oriented and task-oriented leadership behavior and when each should be used.Understand how the theory of individualized leadership has broadened the understanding of relationships between leaders and followers.Recognize how to build partnerships for greater effectiveness.
3The Trait ApproachTraits: the distinguishing personal characteristics of a leader, such as intelligence, honesty, self-confidence, and appearanceGreat Man Approach: a leadership perspective that sought to identify the inherited traits leaders possessed that distinguished them from people who were not leaders
4Ex. 2.1 Personal Characteristics of Leaders EnergyPhysical staminaIntelligence and AbilityIntelligence, cognitive abilityKnowledgeJudgment, decisivenessPersonalitySelf-confidenceHonesty and integrityEnthusiasmDesire to leadIndependenceSocial CharacteristicsSociability, interpersonal skillsCooperativenessAbility to enlist cooperationTact, diplomacyWork-Related CharacteristicsDrive, desire to excelResponsibility in pursuit of goalsPersistence against obstacles, tenacitySocial backgroundEducationMobility
5Behavior ApproachesAutocratic: a leader who tends to centralize authority and derive power from position, control of rewards, and coercionDemocratic: a leader who delegates authority to others, encourages participation, relies on subordinates’ knowledge for completion of tasks, and depends on subordinate respect for influence
6Ex. 2.2 Leadership Continuum Subordinate-CenteredLeadershipBoss-CenteredLeadershipUse of authority by managerArea of freedom for subordinatesManager makesdecisions andannounces itManager presentsideas and invitesquestionsManagerpresentsproblems,gets sugg.makeschangesManagerpermitssubordinatesto functionwithin limitsdefined bysuperiorManagerpresents tentativedecision subjectto changeManagerdefines limits,asks groupdo makedecisionManager “sells”decision
7Ohio State StudiesConsideration: the extent to which a leader is sensitive to subordinates, respects their ideas and feelings, and establishes mutual trustInitiating Structure: the extent to which a leader is task oriented and directs subordinates’ work activities toward goal achievement
8University of Michigan Studies Employee-centered: a leadership behavior that displays a focus on the human needs of subordinatesJob-centered: leadership behavior in which leaders direct activities toward efficiency, cost cutting, and scheduling, with an emphasis on goals and work facilitation
9Ex. 2.3 The Leadership Grid® Figure High1,9Country Club Management9,9Team ManagementConcern for People5,5Middle-of-the-RoadManagementImpoverished Management1,1Authority-ComplianceManagement9,1LowConcern for ResultsLowHigh
10Ex. 2.4 Themes of Leader Behavior Research People-OrientedTask-OrientedOhio State UniversityConsiderationInitiating StructureUniversity of MichiganEmployee-CenteredJob-CenteredUniversity of TexasConcern for PeopleConcern for Production
11Ex. 2.5 Stages of Development of Individulized Leadership Vertical Dyad LinkageLeaders’ behaviors and traits have different impacts across followers, creating in-groups and out-groupsLeader-Member ExchangeLeadership is individualized for each subordinate. Each dyad involves a unique exchange independent of other dyads.Partnership BuildingLeaders can reach out to create a positive exchange with every subordinate. Doing so increases performance.Systems and NetworksLeader dyads can be created in all directions across levels and boundaries to build networks that enhance performance.
12Ex. 2.6 Leader Behavior Toward In-Group versus Out-Group Members Discusses objectives; gives employee freedom to use his or her own approach in solving problems and reaching goalsListens to employee’s suggestions and ideas about how work is doneTreats mistakes as learning opportunitiesOut-GroupGives employee specific directives for how to accomplish tasks and attain goalsShows little interest in employee’s comments and suggestionsCriticizes or punishes mistakes
13Ex. 2.6 (contd.)In-GroupGives employee interesting assignments; may allow employee to choose assignmentSometimes defers to subordinate’s opinionPraises accomplishmentsOut-GroupAssigns primarily routine jobs and monitors employee closelyUsually imposes own viewsFocuses on areas of poor performance
14Leader-Member Exchange An individualized leadership model that explores how leader-member relationships develop over time and how the quality of exchange relationships impacts outcomes