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Johns Hopkins University School of Professional Studies in Business and Education 2006 Early Leadership Studies 1. Differentiated between leaders and followers.

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Presentation on theme: "Johns Hopkins University School of Professional Studies in Business and Education 2006 Early Leadership Studies 1. Differentiated between leaders and followers."— Presentation transcript:

1 Johns Hopkins University School of Professional Studies in Business and Education 2006 Early Leadership Studies 1. Differentiated between leaders and followers by identifying the characteristics necessary to complete a task 2. Others identified leaders by observable behaviors 3. Some theorists looked at situational or contingency approaches to leadership

2 Johns Hopkins University School of Professional Studies in Business and Education 2006 Leadership Definitions from the Early Studies 1. The ability of an individual to influence others to pursue defined goals and objectives 2. Includes establishing relationships with individuals affiliated with the organization sufficiently to gain commitment 3. Involves acquiring a knowledge of individuals and situations (recognizing the individual)

3 Johns Hopkins University School of Professional Studies in Business and Education 2006 R.M. Stogdill (1948) Looked at over 100 studies from the 30’s and 40’s. There were no characteristics or traits that distinguished leaders from non- leaders. Looked at over 100 studies from the 30’s and 40’s. There were no characteristics or traits that distinguished leaders from non- leaders.

4 Johns Hopkins University School of Professional Studies in Business and Education 2006 Later Studies The Iowa Studies (1930’s ) –tried to identify styles or behaviors of leadership Kurt Lewin- looked for a style or pattern of leadership behaviors Determined three leadership styles: Autocratic, Democratic, and Laissez- Faire

5 Johns Hopkins University School of Professional Studies in Business and Education 2006 Autocratic: very direct; decision making and power centralized with the leader; full responsibility for the task from beginning to end. Democratic: shared decision making; followers considered equals; group discussion and decisions

6 Johns Hopkins University School of Professional Studies in Business and Education 2006 Laissez-Faire: complete freedom to the group; little concern for completing the job; subordinates left on their own to complete the task

7 Johns Hopkins University School of Professional Studies in Business and Education 2006 Democratic leadership viewed as the most effective and as a result: Leadership must be democratic, driving fear out of the workplace and fostering a community of leaders who collaborate on all major issues

8 Johns Hopkins University School of Professional Studies in Business and Education 2006 The Ohio State Studies- Late 50’s What behaviors do leaders display? What behaviors do leaders display? Leadership is the behavior an individual displays when directing a group toward goal attainment Leadership is the behavior an individual displays when directing a group toward goal attainment Found two categories: Initiating structures (task orientation) and Consideration (people orientation) Found two categories: Initiating structures (task orientation) and Consideration (people orientation)

9 Johns Hopkins University School of Professional Studies in Business and Education 2006 Quadrant 1 high consideration and low structure Quadrant 2 high consideration and high structure Quadrant 3 low consideration and high structure Quadrant 4 low consideration and low structure

10 Johns Hopkins University School of Professional Studies in Business and Education 2006 Michigan Studies Focused on the identification of relationships among leader behaviors, group processes, and measures of group performance Focused on the identification of relationships among leader behaviors, group processes, and measures of group performance Studies indicated three types of leader behaviors that differentiated effective and ineffective managers Studies indicated three types of leader behaviors that differentiated effective and ineffective managers

11 Johns Hopkins University School of Professional Studies in Business and Education 2006 Task-oriented behavior: focus on subordinates, high standards, highly organized, identification of methods to obtain objectives, close supervision

12 Johns Hopkins University School of Professional Studies in Business and Education 2006 Relationship-oriented behavior: development of personal relationships, focusing on the personal needs of staff, behaviors that motivate

13 Johns Hopkins University School of Professional Studies in Business and Education 2006 Participative leadership: use of group supervision, enhance follower participation in decision making, communication, cooperation, and resolving conflict

14 Johns Hopkins University School of Professional Studies in Business and Education 2006 Michigan studies revealed that effective leaders: Possess task-oriented behavior Possess task-oriented behavior Set high performance goals Set high performance goals Focus on planning, coordinating, and facilitating work Focus on planning, coordinating, and facilitating work Develop positive interpersonal relations Develop positive interpersonal relations Allow subordinates a degree of autonomy (high productivity results in high morale) Allow subordinates a degree of autonomy (high productivity results in high morale) Believe in SHARED LEADERSHIP Believe in SHARED LEADERSHIP

15 Johns Hopkins University School of Professional Studies in Business and Education 2006 Blake and Mouton Managerial Grid (1985) Two dimensions of leadership Two dimensions of leadership Concern for production (task orientation) Concern for production (task orientation) Concern for people (relationship orientation) Concern for people (relationship orientation)

16 Johns Hopkins University School of Professional Studies in Business and Education 2006 Country Club management- focus on relationships at the expense of productivity Authority/obedience management- power and control used to get results Country Club management- focus on relationships at the expense of productivity Authority/obedience management- power and control used to get results

17 Johns Hopkins University School of Professional Studies in Business and Education 2006 Impoverished management- leader does only what is necessary to remain employed Organizational management- maintain the status quo; go-along-to-get-along Team management- high concern for both task completion and maintenance of relationships

18 Johns Hopkins University School of Professional Studies in Business and Education 2006 Hersey and Blanchard (1977) Situational Leadership Q1 High task Low relationship Q2 Low task Low relationship Q3 Low Task High relationship Q4 High task High relationship

19 Johns Hopkins University School of Professional Studies in Business and Education 2006 Hersey and Blanchard Q1 Directive: gives specific direction with close supervision Q1 Directive: gives specific direction with close supervision Q2 Delegation: gives responsibility for problem solving/decisions to subordinates Q2 Delegation: gives responsibility for problem solving/decisions to subordinates Q3 Supportive: facilitates and supports subordinates, shares responsibility Q3 Supportive: facilitates and supports subordinates, shares responsibility Q4 Coaching: specific direction, close supervision, explains, solicits, supports Q4 Coaching: specific direction, close supervision, explains, solicits, supports

20 Johns Hopkins University School of Professional Studies in Business and Education 2006 POWER and AUTHORITY John French (1993) Legitimate or position power Legitimate or position power Referent or personality power (charismatic) Referent or personality power (charismatic) Reward power Reward power Expert power Expert power

21 Johns Hopkins University School of Professional Studies in Business and Education 2006 For additional information: ntents/4directing/leading/lead.htm ntents/4directing/leading/lead.htm ntents/4directing/leading/lead.htm ntents/4directing/leading/lead.htm


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