Presentation on theme: "1 Traits, Behaviors, and Relationships. 2 Ex. 2.1 Personal Characteristics of Leaders Personal Characteristics Energy Physical stamina Intelligence and."— Presentation transcript:
2 Ex. 2.1 Personal Characteristics of Leaders Personal Characteristics Energy Physical stamina Intelligence and Ability Intelligence, cognitive ability Knowledge Judgment, decisiveness Personality Self-confidence Honesty and integrity Enthusiasm Desire to lead Independence Social Characteristics Sociability, interpersonal skills Cooperativeness Ability to enlist cooperation Tact, diplomacy Work-Related Characteristics Drive, desire to excel Responsibility in pursuit of goals Persistence against obstacles, tenacity Social background Education Mobility
3 The Trait Approach Traits : the distinguishing personal characteristics of a leader, such as intelligence, honesty, self-confidence, and appearance Great Man Approach : a leadership perspective that sought to identify the inherited traits leaders possessed that distinguished them from people who were not leaders
4 The Trait Approach Traits : the distinguishing personal characteristics of a leader, such as intelligence honesty self-confidence need for achievement appearance, decisiveness, initiative.
5 Behavior Approaches Autocratic : a leader who tends to centralize authority and derive power from position, control of rewards, and coercion Democratic : a leader who delegates authority to others, encourages participation, relies on subordinates’ knowledge for completion of tasks, and depends on subordinate respect for influence
6 Ex. 2.2 Leadership Continuum Boss-Centered Leadership Subordinate-Centered Leadership Use of authority by manager Area of freedom for subordinates Manager makes decisions and announces it Manager “sells” decision Manager presents ideas and invites questions Manager presents tentative decision subject to change Manager presents problems, gets sugg. makes changes Manager permits subordinates to function within limits defined by superior Manager defines limits, asks group do make decision
7 Ohio State Studies Consideration : the extent to which a leader is sensitive to subordinates, respects their ideas and feelings, and establishes mutual trust Initiating Structure : the extent to which a leader is task oriented and directs subordinates’ work activities toward goal achievement
8 University of Michigan Studies Employee-centered : a leadership behavior that displays a focus on the human needs of subordinates Job-centered : leadership behavior in which leaders direct activities toward efficiency, cost cutting, and scheduling, with an emphasis on goals and work facilitation
9 Ex. 2.3 The Leadership Grid ® Figure 1,9 Country Club Management 9,9 Team Management 5,5 Middle-of-the-Road Management Impoverished Management 1,1 Authority-Compliance Management 9,1 Low Concern for ResultsHigh Concern for People
10 Ex. 2.4 Themes of Leader Behavior Research People-OrientedTask-Oriented Ohio State UniversityConsiderationInitiating Structure University of MichiganEmployee-CenteredJob-Centered University of TexasConcern for PeopleConcern for Production
11 Ex. 2.5 Stages of Development of Individualized Leadership 1. Vertical Dyad Linkage Leaders’ behaviors and traits have different impacts across followers, creating in-groups and out-groups 2. Leader-Member Exchange Leadership is individualized for each subordinate. Each dyad involves a unique exchange independent of other dyads. 3. Partnership Building Leaders can reach out to create a positive exchange with every subordinate. Doing so increases performance. 4. Systems and Networks Leader dyads can be created in all directions across levels and boundaries to build networks that enhance performance.
12 Leader Behavior Toward In-Group versus Out-Group Members In-group Discusses objectives; gives employee freedom to use his or her own approach in solving problems and reaching goals Listens to employee’s suggestions and ideas about how work is done Treats mistakes as learning opportunities Out-Group Gives employee specific directives for how to accomplish tasks and attain goals Shows little interest in employee’s comments and suggestions Criticizes or punishes mistakes
13 Ex. 2.6 (contd.) In-Group Gives employee interesting assignments; may allow employee to choose assignment Sometimes defers to subordinate’s opinion Praises accomplishments Out-Group Assigns primarily routine jobs and monitors employee closely Usually imposes own views Focuses on areas of poor performance
14 Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) An individualized leadership model that explores how leader-member relationships develop over time and how the quality of exchange relationships impacts outcomes
16 F In-Group F F F F F Out-group F F F F F F F Leader-Member Exchange Model
In groups Followers go far beyond their formal job description, and the leader in turn does more for these followers. Members receive reciprocal attention, more information and concerns from the leader small number of trusted followers with whom the leader usually establishes a special higher quality exchange relationship. Treats mistakes as learning opportunities. Leader Member Exchange
18 Out group Followers are not interested in taking on new and different job responsibilities. Communication with leader is formal. Criticizes or punishes mistakes Leader Member Exchange
19 PARTNERSHIP BUILDING Build positive Relationships with all Use Open Communications
20 Summary *Leadership – as an influence relationship among leaders and followers who intend “Real Change” and outcomes that reflect their shared purpose. *They take personal responsibility to make things happen *Concepts of Leadership have evolved overtime *The biggest challenge facing leaders today is the changing world that wants a new Paradigm of leadership! *New reality involves the shift from stability to change and crisis management from control to empowerment and from competition to collaboration, from uniformity to diversity. *New reality involves the shift from stability to change and crisis management from control to empowerment and from competition to collaboration, from uniformity to diversity.