“New” Imperialism Mr. Noble & Mrs. Bischoff World History
“What enterprise is more noble and more profitable than the reclamation from barbarism of fertile regions and large populations?” -Winston Churchill
Imperialism ► Taking control of another country for the purpose of economic/political gain
Economic Causes of Imperialism ► Industrial Revolution In 1750, the average standard of living in Europe was no higher than the rest of the world By 1970, the average person in Western Europe had twenty-five times the wealth of the average person in the poorer countries
► World Trade Centered around Europe Had grown 25 times larger from 1800-1913
Types of European Imperialism ► Settlement Colonies People from one country lived together in a new area ► 13 American Colonies ► Australia ► Dependent Colonies A few European officials rule non-European people ► India
Protectorates Local rulers kept their title, but Europeans really controlled the area ► Morocco ► Spheres of Influence Other nations agree to respect one nation’s special interest in a certain area ► Monroe Doctrine = Latin America An area in which an outside power claims exclusive trading rights. China was carved out this way. It eliminates the “take over” officially of a region or area. Types of Colonies Continued..
Britain Led European Trade ► Used its empire as a market for its manufactured goods Europe bought 50 percent of Britain's cotton textiles ► Britain stopped its colonies from raising protective tariffs Colonies could NOT develop own industries
Technological Advances ► The railroad, the steamship, refrigeration, and other technological innovations revolutionized trade patterns
► The Suez and Panama canals and modern port facilities fostered intercontinental trade
Political Causes of Imperialism ► National security ► Military power ► International prestige colonies were essential to Great Nations
Social Reasons ► Many westerners felt a genuine obligation to “improve” the lives of others. ► Missionaries wanted to spread their religion. They built churches and started conversion. ► Europeans saw themselves as superior due to the fact that they had industrialized.
Other Causes of Imperialism ► Nationalism ► Racism showed racial superiority and national greatness ► Western technological and military superiority fostered imperialism machine gun quinine steamship telegraph
White Man’s Burden by Rudyard Kipling Take up the White Man's burden--Send forth the best ye breed-- Go bind your sons to exile To serve your captives' need; To wait in heavy harness, On fluttered folk and wild-- Your new-caught, sullen peoples, Half-devil and half- child. 1. What is “White Man’s Burden?” 2. What were some words you did not know the meaning of? 2. What is the purpose of the poem? 3. Evaluate the poem as historical evidence. What does it tell us about the viewpoint of some Europeans living at the time? 4. What do you think Africans think about Americans?
“White Man's Burden" ► Rudyard Kipling - 1899 ► Duty to "civilize" more primitive, nonwhite peoples ► Missionaries brought Christianity and education But also racism
British Imperialism ► Largest colonial empire “Sun never sets on the British Empire”
British Imperialism Colonies established to protect trading interests in Africa and Asia Two kinds of colonies ► “White” Colonies (Canada, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa) given self-rule ► “Non-white” Colonies (India, Africa) under direct rule
French Imperialism ► Acquired Algeria in 1830 ► Took over Indochina (Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia) by the 1880s ► Expanded into Western Africa in the 1880s ► Took colonies to make up for loss of Alsace-Lorraine in 1870 ► Pitt and Napolean carve up Asia
German Imperialism ► Bismarck originally opposed colonial expansion Unnecessary for Germany Did not want to threaten France or Britain ► Germany took colonies in 1880s for status symbols In Africa and Asia
Why Africa? ► Africa is a huge continent, four times the size of Europe. ► It contains many diverse cultures and regions. The people of Africa spoke 100’s of different languages. ► This vast continent also possessed many valuable natural resources and raw materials that were needed by the Industrialized nations of the world.
European Contact Increases ► In the 1500’s and 1600’s the coastal areas of Africa had been used for trading with other nations but the interior was considered uncharted territory. ► Africa was referred to as the “Dark Continent” because the interior was unknown. ► Technology encourages exploration and many Europeans took on the challenge of the unknown in Africa.
Scramble for Africa ► Europe had been interested in Africa for centuries Through the slave trade ► Much of Africa still unexplored until 1880s European influence restricted to coastline ► Technology allows Europeans to explore African interior Steamboats, Suez Canal, advances in medicine
Berlin Conference 1884 ► To avoid bloodshed and save money, European nations decided to sit down in Berlin at the table and carve out the map of Africa for themselves. ► The interesting part is that no Africans were invited.
► “We have been engaged in drawing lines upon maps where no white man’s foot has ever trod. We have been giving away mountains and rivers and lakes to each other, only hindered by small impediment that we never knew exactly where the mountains and rivers and lakes were.” A British Politician
Conference of Berlin 1884-1885 ► Roles: Reporter – records all plans and agreements between nations. Ambassador – publicly explains desire of country at the “Meeting of the Nations” Head Negotiator – Is the only person who can leave the group to make deals.
► Goal: To secure for your nation, favorable colonies on the Continent of Africa. All deals must be agreed upon by groups (but can be secret). There can be no threat of war at any time. ► Countries: France Great Britain Portugal Spain Germany Belgium Italy
► Materials: Map Atlas – page 106-113 focus on annual precipitation, minerals and energy resources, land use and population. Ignore present day borders!!
Scramble for Africa 1. How were the modern boundaries of Africa created? 2. The United States got involved with the conference but did not receive or take any land. Why? 3. Who was not represented at the conference? Why? 4. What challenges did this process create for the indigenous people of Africa?
Scramble for Africa ► By 1914, 90% of Africa under European control France in Northern (Algeria) and Western Africa Britain from Egypt to South Africa Belgium in the Congo Italy in Libya and Eastern Africa Portugal in southern Africa Germany in scattered areas