2What does Reconstruction mean? Reconstruction- refers to the process of readmitting Confederate states to the Union, it lasted from
3Lincoln’s Plan for Reconstruction His goal … to unify the nationHis plan was to pardon Confed. officialsHis 10 % Plan was when 10 percent of voters had taken the oath, a new state government could be organized. The new government was required to ban slavery.
4Lincoln’s Plan for Reconstruction He wanted to allowed Confederate states to quickly reenter the Union and send new representatives to Congress.
5Black Codes Passed by southern states Limited the freedom of freed slaves: denying them to right to vote etc.Required that freed slaves work: if you were not working you could be arrested and hired out to work a farm.Kept freedmen at bottom of social order, started practice of segregation- separate public places.
6Freedmen’s BureauThe Freedman's Bureau Bill was initiated by President Abraham Lincoln and was intended to last for one year after the end of the Civil War to aid former slaves through education, health care, and employment.The Freedman's Bureau spent $17,000 to help establish homes and distribute food, it established 4,300 schools and 100 hospitals for former slaves. The Bureau also helped freedmen find new jobs.
7Lincoln is Assassinated Five days after Lee’s surrender at Appomattox Courthouse, Pres. Lincoln went to Ford’s Theatre to see a play.During the play, John Wilkes Booth shot Lincoln in the back of the head.Lincoln died the next day, April 15, 1865.Vice President Andrew Johnson became President and everyone wondered what his plans for Reconstruction would be.
9Andrew JohnsonJohnson was a Democrat but planned to follow Lincoln’s plans for Reconstruction.
10Johnson did not believe African Americans should participate in government but did end slavery He wrote the 13th Amendment in 1865.
11Plans for Reconstruction: Problem:Radical RepublicanJohnson PlanTreatment of South*punish by taking land*military control to enforce lawsaccept verbal pledges of loyalty from rebels*leniency will heal nation’s wounds fasterRequirement of Readmission*replace existing political leaders*strict requirements*require political leaders to seek pardons from Congress*pledge to reject secession and slaveryAssistance to Freedmen*provide assistance for housing, education, jobs*military to enforce suffrage*allow states to decide type of assistance to African Americans
12Republicans in Congress Knowing the discrimination that was still going on in the south, and Johnson’s lack of support, the Congress passed another Amendment in 1866.The14th Amendment further protected rights of African Americans by declaring them citizens.
13Johnson’s Reaction Johnson refused to support the amendment. As a result the Republican Congress decided they would take over Reconstruction.
14Military Reconstruction Divided South into 5 sections controlled by military.
15Johnson’s Impeachment Johnson and Congress continued to fight over Reconstruction.In 1867 Congress passed the Tenure in Office Law which limited the power of the president and didn’t allow him to fire government officials without Senate approval.Not believing they could do this, Jonson fired the Secretary of War.Three days later the Congress brought him up on impeachment charges.
16ImpeachmentTo impeach means they accused the president of improper conduct.By removing him from office they hoped to carry on with their own plans for reconstruction.In the end he escaped impeachment by one vote.The relationship between the branches will not improve in the years to come.
17Daily life during Reconstruction It wasn’t easy walking off the plantation with no money, house or job experience.Most Freedman returned to the farms to work, but all dreamed of owning their own land.
18Sharecropping Slaves needed land to work but had no money to buy it. Plantation owners needed labor to work their land but had no money to pay them.Under the new sharecropping system the employer provided the land, tools, seed—basically everything but the labor.
19SharecroppingIf the crop failed he was left with nothing to pay back to owner.This often trapped families in a cycle of poverty and debt that chained them again to the plantation.
21Daily life during Reconstruction The recently Freedmen had problems besides poverty and economics.They also faced violent racism.A lot of Southerners did not believe in equality and this led to the rise of secret groups with the goal of keeping Freedman out of political life and way from voting.
23The KKkTheir goal was to restore Democratic control of the south and keep the former slaves powerless.They did this through threats,intimidation and violence.When they targeted Republicans too…no one voted Republican in the South and the Democrats were allowed to take control of southern governments.
24Election of GrantDespite attacks by the KKK in the south, the Republicans' still won the 1866 presidential electionUlysses S. Grant was elected the 18th President.
25Helping the southern vote Grants passed the 15th Amendment which stated that the govt. can not deny a citizen the right to vote based on that citizen’s “race, color, or previous condition of servitude”Scalawags- poor white Southerners who identified with the RepublicansCarpetbaggers- Northerners who had moved to the South.
26RacismThe recently freed slaves had problems besides poverty and economics.They also faced violent racism. Racism is the belief that a persons race, ethnicity, or nationality makes them less superior to another.A lot of Southerners did not believe in equality and this led to the rise of secret groups with the goal of keeping freedman out of political life and way from voting.
27The End of Reconstruction Reconstruction will begin to end when Rutherford B Hayes is elected President in 1876One year later he withdrew US troops from Southern states and it officially ends in 1877.Gains that had been made in education and voting rights will end.
28Segregation continued Some Af. Americans moved to the North.Those who stayed in the south created communities that did what they could to combat discrimination.
29Was it Reconstruction successful? Yes and NoDid it reunited the country …yesDid it achieve equality for African Americans…no
30One Hundred Years later we were still fighting for equal rights.