Presentation on theme: "Reconstruction. What does Reconstruction mean? Reconstruction- refers to the process of readmitting Confederate states to the Union, it lasted from 1865-1877."— Presentation transcript:
What does Reconstruction mean? Reconstruction- refers to the process of readmitting Confederate states to the Union, it lasted from 1865-1877.
Lincoln’s Plan for Reconstruction His goal … to unify the nation His plan was to pardon Confed. officials His 10 % Plan was when 10 percent of voters had taken the oath, a new state government could be organized. The new government was required to ban slavery.
Lincoln’s Plan for Reconstruction He wanted to allowed Confederate states to quickly reenter the Union and send new representatives to Congress.
Black Codes Passed by southern states Limited the freedom of freed slaves: denying them to right to vote etc. Required that freed slaves work: if you were not working you could be arrested and hired out to work a farm. Kept freedmen at bottom of social order, started practice of segregation- separate public places.
The Freedman's Bureau Bill was initiated by President Abraham Lincoln and was intended to last for one year after the end of the Civil War to aid former slaves through education, health care, and employment. The Freedman's Bureau spent $17,000 to help establish homes and distribute food, it established 4,300 schools and 100 hospitals for former slaves. The Bureau also helped freedmen find new jobs. Freedmen’s Bureau
Lincoln is Assassinated Five days after Lee’s surrender at Appomattox Courthouse, Pres. Lincoln went to Ford’s Theatre to see a play. During the play, John Wilkes Booth shot Lincoln in the back of the head. Lincoln died the next day, April 15, 1865. Vice President Andrew Johnson became President and everyone wondered what his plans for Reconstruction would be.
Andrew Johnson Johnson was a Democrat but planned to follow Lincoln’s plans for Reconstruction.
Johnson did not believe African Americans should participate in government but did end slavery He wrote the 13 th Amendment in 1865.
Plans for Reconstruction: Problem:Radical RepublicanJohnson Plan Treatment of South *punish by taking land *military control to enforce laws accept verbal pledges of loyalty from rebels *leniency will heal nation’s wounds faster Requirement of Readmission *replace existing political leaders *strict requirements *require political leaders to seek pardons from Congress *pledge to reject secession and slavery Assistance to Freedmen *provide assistance for housing, education, jobs *military to enforce suffrage *allow states to decide type of assistance to African Americans
Republicans in Congress Knowing the discrimination that was still going on in the south, and Johnson’s lack of support, the Congress passed another Amendment in 1866. The14 th Amendment further protected rights of African Americans by declaring them citizens.
Johnson’s Reaction Johnson refused to support the amendment. As a result the Republican Congress decided they would take over Reconstruction.
Military Reconstruction Divided South into 5 sections controlled by military.
Johnson’s Impeachment Johnson and Congress continued to fight over Reconstruction. In 1867 Congress passed the Tenure in Office Law which limited the power of the president and didn’t allow him to fire government officials without Senate approval. Not believing they could do this, Jonson fired the Secretary of War. Three days later the Congress brought him up on impeachment charges.
Impeachment To impeach means they accused the president of improper conduct. By removing him from office they hoped to carry on with their own plans for reconstruction. In the end he escaped impeachment by one vote. The relationship between the branches will not improve in the years to come.
It wasn’t easy walking off the plantation with no money, house or job experience. Most Freedman returned to the farms to work, but all dreamed of owning their own land. Daily life during Reconstruction
Sharecropping Slaves needed land to work but had no money to buy it. Plantation owners needed labor to work their land but had no money to pay them. Under the new sharecropping system the employer provided the land, tools, seed—basically everything but the labor.
Sharecropping If the crop failed he was left with nothing to pay back to owner. This often trapped families in a cycle of poverty and debt that chained them again to the plantation.
Daily life during Reconstruction The recently Freedmen had problems besides poverty and economics. They also faced violent racism. A lot of Southerners did not believe in equality and this led to the rise of secret groups with the goal of keeping Freedman out of political life and way from voting.
The KKk Their goal was to restore Democratic control of the south and keep the former slaves powerless. They did this through threats, intimidation and violence. When they targeted Republicans too…no one voted Republican in the South and the Democrats were allowed to take control of southern governments.
Election of Grant Despite attacks by the KKK in the south, the Republicans' still won the 1866 presidential election Ulysses S. Grant was elected the 18th President.
Helping the southern vote Grants passed the 15 th Amendment which stated that the govt. can not deny a citizen the right to vote based on that citizen’s “race, color, or previous condition of servitude” Scalawags- poor white Southerners who identified with the Republicans Carpetbaggers- Northerners who had moved to the South.
The recently freed slaves had problems besides poverty and economics. They also faced violent racism. Racism is the belief that a persons race, ethnicity, or nationality makes them less superior to another. A lot of Southerners did not believe in equality and this led to the rise of secret groups with the goal of keeping freedman out of political life and way from voting. Racism
The End of Reconstruction Reconstruction will begin to end when Rutherford B Hayes is elected President in 1876 One year later he withdrew US troops from Southern states and it officially ends in 1877. Gains that had been made in education and voting rights will end.
Segregation continued Some Af. Americans moved to the North. Those who stayed in the south created communities that did what they could to combat discrimination.
Was it Reconstruction successful? Yes and No Did it reunited the country …yes Did it achieve equality for African Americans…no