Presentation on theme: "GERMS are EVERYWHERE!!!!! Glo Germ Activity"— Presentation transcript:
1GERMS are EVERYWHERE!!!!! Glo Germ Activity Who touched the doorknob when they came into the room today?Eek! You’ve come in contact with GERMS!
2Diseases Bolken 2015Pathogen – a virus, microorganism, or other organism that causes disease; an infectious agent
3Types of PathogensBacteria: microscopic, unicellular creatures that get nutrients from their surrounding environments. Inside our bodies, they can cause infections.Virus: not considered living things because they require a host to survive such as a person or plant. They can live for short periods of time on doorknobs, desks, and toilet seats. Viruses spread from person to person making us sick.Fungi: microscopic, multicellular organisms that love damp, dark, warm places. They get nutrients by stealing it from plants or people.Protists: unicellular organisms that can spread disease through water and cause intestinal diseases.
5Lytic vs. Lysogenic Cycle Life Cycle of a VirusLytic vs. Lysogenic CycleHave students summarize the diagram in their notes.
6How are diseases transmitted? Airborne – Tuberculosis bacteria, common cold virusFoodborne – Food poisoning bacteria like salmonellaWaterborne – Cholera bacteriaVector – an organisms that acts as an intermediate host that transfers a pathogen or parasite to another organism.Malaria, protist carried by mosquitoLyme Disease, bacteria carried by ticksPlague, virus carried by rats (recent NYC news)Touch/Contact – Rhinovirus (the common cold)Bloodborne – AIDSSexual – AIDS, HPV
7How can diseases be prevented? WASH YOUR HANDS!!!Have good personal hygieneCover your mouth when you sneeze (NOT with your hands, the proper way is to use the inside of your elbow)Keep your kitchen counters cleanWash raw fruits and vegetablesWipe down cell phones, bags and purses that touch the floor, wallets, etc.Get the recommended vaccines and keep them current with boostersBe smart about sexual behaviorsEducation – know how to protect yourselfControlling animal vectorsWildlife officials set out meat containing rabies vaccine for wild animals to consume
8Vaccines: Disease Prevention Vaccines are a highly effective way to prevent viral infectionsSmallpox (eradicated), measles, mumps, rubella, chicken pox, polio, tetanus, diphtheria, pertussisVaccines are made by using dead or weakened forms of the virus to create immunityLive, or attenuated, vaccines provide the greatest protectionIntroduce antigens into the body to cause immunity without the risk of actual infectionThe body creates memory cells which can be used during a secondary immune response
9How are diseases cured?Cures for most infectious diseases do not existInstead, treatment is providedBacterial diseases:AntibioticsTreat symptomsViral diseases:Vaccines (prevention)Run its course
10The Immune SystemOur immune system has three lines of defense against potential invaders:Barrier defensesInflammatory ResponseLeukocytes
11Defense 1: Barriers1. Mechanical Barriers – physically block pathogens from entering the body.Skin – the single most important defense the body has.Mucous membranes – provide protection at body openings and line the respiratory, GI, urinary, and reproductive tracts.They secrete mucus, a slimy substance that traps pathogens.Cilia – hair-like structures that sweep mucus and pathogens toward body openings where they can be removed from the body.Sneezing and coughing – pathogens are removed from the nose and throatTears – wash pathogens from the eyes.Urine – flushes pathogens out of the urinary tract.
12Defense 1: Barriers2. Chemical Barriers – destroy pathogens on the outer body surface, at body openings, and on inner body linings.Sweat, mucus, tears, and saliva all contain enzymes that kill pathogens.Urine is too acidic for many pathogensSemen contains zinc, which most pathogens cannot tolerateStomach acid kills pathogens that enter the GI tract in food or water.3. Biological Barriers – living organisms that help protect the body.Millions of harmless bacteria live on the human skin and in the GI tract.The harmless bacteria use up food and space so harmful bacteria cannot grow.
13Defense 2: Inflammatory Response What happens when you get a cut on your hand?May become red, warm, swollenTissue damage or infection can cause inflammatory response
14Defense 3: Leukocytes Leukocytes are your white blood cells They are used in two kinds of responsesNon-specific defenseSpecific defense
15Non specific defense Same no matter what type of pathogen is involved. Phagocytosis – when a leukocyte engulfs and breaks down a pathogen and debris
16Specific defense Tailored to specific pathogens Involves the lymphatic system – filters pathogens from lymph and produces lymphocytes in lymph nodesThis is why your lymph nodes become swollen when you’re sickLymphocytes – white blood cells that are activated by exposure to a particular antigenB cells – produce antibodies to a particular antigen. Memory B cells remain in the body after the immune response is over and provide immunity to pathogens bearing the antigen.T cells – destroy certain cancer cells and cells infected by viruses. Memory T cells remain in the body after the immune response and provide antigen-specific immunity to the virus.Memory B and T cells help protect the body from re-infection by pathogens that infected the body in the past.
17Specific defenseImmunity is the ability to resist infection by a pathogen.Active immunity results from an immune response to a pathogen and the formation of memory cells.Created through vaccinationsPassive immunity results from the transfer of antibodies to a person who has not been exposed to the pathogen.Mother to child during pregnancyMother to child by breastfeeding
18What is the benefit of a fever? Moderate fevers (<103°F) are homeostatic mechanisms designed to slow the growth of pathogens that have invaded the bodyFevers above this would damage essential proteins and enzymes in the bodyLow grade fevers are common after receiving live virus (attenuated) vaccines
19Immune System Problems Autoimmune diseases occur when the immune system fails to recognize the body’s own molecules as “self,” or belonging to the person. Instead, it attacks body cells as though they were dangerous pathogens.Name of DiseaseTissues Attacked by Immune SystemResults of Immune System AttackRheumatoid arthritistissues inside jointsjoint damage and painType 1 diabetesinsulin-producing cells of the pancreasinability to produce insulin, high blood sugarMultiple sclerosismyelin sheaths of central nervous system neuronsmuscle weakness, pain, fatigueSystemic lupus erythematosusjoints, heart, other organsjoint and organ damage and pain
20Immune System Problems An allergy is a disease in which the immune system makes an inflammatory response to a harmless antigen. Any antigen that causes an allergy is called an allergen. Allergens may be inhaled or ingested, or they may come into contact with the skin.Immunodeficiency occurs when the immune system is not working properly. As a result, it cannot fight off pathogens that a normal immune system would be able to resist.HIV is a virus that attacks cells of the immune system and eventually causes AIDS. It is the chief cause of immunodeficiency in the world today.