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{ Chapter 47 The Immune system.  What is a pathogen?  Any agent that causes disease  Koch was the first to establish how to identify individual pathogens.

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Presentation on theme: "{ Chapter 47 The Immune system.  What is a pathogen?  Any agent that causes disease  Koch was the first to establish how to identify individual pathogens."— Presentation transcript:

1 { Chapter 47 The Immune system

2  What is a pathogen?  Any agent that causes disease  Koch was the first to establish how to identify individual pathogens Identifying pathogens All of these are caused by communicable diseases an infectious disease transmissible by direct contact with an affected individual or the individual's discharges or by indirect means

3  Pathogens must enter the body to cause disease  SNOT!!-Internal structures  Yes, your mucus is the first line of defense  Mucus membranes secrete mucus  Your skin!!  releases oil, sweat, waxes that are toxic to pathogens The first line of defense Nonspecific immune response

4  Inflammatory response  Activated when any pathogen gets past the first line of defense The second line of defense

5  The body temperature may rise when the body fights off a pathogen.  Obviously called a fever  Fevers can slow bacterial and viral growth  A fever too high can actually damage proteins needed to fight infection. Temperature response

6  Yes, there are proteins coded for nonspecific defenses.  There are 20 proteins that make up your complementary system  Some of these proteins attack, stab, and destroy pathogen cells  Interferon-a protein released by cells infected with viruses.  Causes nearby cells to make a protein that helps them resist viral infection Proteins for defense?

7  The immune system is the cells and tissues that recognize and attack foreign substances in the body and provides the body’s specific defenses. The Immune System Specific immune response

8  The immune system fights pathogens, stops the growth and spread of cancers  Made up of several tissues and white blood cells  White blood cells are called lymphocytes  Each white blood cell is made in your bone marrow  Each day billions are made  The thymus, located above the heart, is where your T cells mature  The Lymph nodes-collect pathogens and expose them to the lymphocytes The Immune System Specific immune response

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10  Your lymphocytes can actually recognize foreign invaders  Think about a flu shot  Antigens- any substance that the immune system can recognize and react with  Any time your body reacts against an antigen, this is called an immune response Recognizing Pathogens

11  Antigens are located on the surface of a pathogen  Lymphocytes have unique receptor proteins on their surface  Receptor proteins recognize antigens of the same shape and bind, rendering the antigen useless.  Bacteria can be covered by many different types of antigens, causing lymphocytes to react. Recognizing Pathogens

12  In a nut shell  Your body is invaded by pathogens  Your macrophage engulf the pathogen and express the antigen  Helper cells bind to the antigen site.  This binding causes you to create memory cells and plasma cells  Memory cells “remember” the antigen  Plasma cells carry antibodies  Antibodies are highly specialized cells that make defensive proteins  Are in the shape of a Y The Immune response

13  Immunity  The ability to resist an infectious disease  Vaccination  The introduction of antigens into the body to create immunity Immunity and vaccination

14  This is a solution that contains a dead or a weakened pathogen or material from a pathogen  The antigens are still present, therefore your body responds and creates the memory cells.  This response can provide a secondary immune response if affection occurs again.  Common diseases that have been controlled through vaccines  Polio, measles, mumps, tetanus, and diphtheria  These vaccines can wear off  Your doctor may recommend a “booster”  What are the issues with vaccines? Vaccines

15  Fight bacterial infections  Do antibiotics help fight virus?  Think of how many times you have a cold or the flu and a Dr. prescribes antibiotics!  When used properly, they can save lives.  Remember evolution  Pathogens evolve and cause a very serious issue  Antibiotic resistance!!  occurs when bacteria change in some way that reduces or eliminates the effectiveness of drugs, chemicals, or other agents designed to cure or prevent infections. The bacteria survive and continue to multiply causing more harm. Antibiotics

16 Biology crash course


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