Presentation on theme: "KEY CONCEPT 31.1 Germs cause many diseases in humans."— Presentation transcript:
1 KEY CONCEPT 31.1 Germs cause many diseases in humans.
2 Germ theory states that microscopic particles cause certain diseases. proposed by Louis Pasteurled to rapid advances in understanding disease
3 Koch’s postulates support the theory - Pathogen must be present in every case disease is found- Pathogen must be isolated and cultured- Healthy animal must be injected- Pathogen must be collected, isolated, and identical to originalDisease-causing agents are called pathogens.
4 There are different types of pathogens. 1. Bacteria are single-celled organisms.cause illness by destroying cellsrelease toxic chemicals
5 2. Viruses are genetic material surrounded by a protein coat. force host cells to make more virusesvery small
6 3. Fungi can be multicellular or single-celled. take nutrients from host cellsoccur in warm and damp places
7 4. Protozoa are single-celled organisms. use host cells to complete their life cyclestake nutrients from host cell
8 5. Parasites are multicellular organisms. grow and feed on a hostpossibly kill the host
9 Different pathogen cause common infectious diseases.
10 Pathogens can enter the body in different ways. Pathogens can be transferred by direct or indirect contact.Indirect contact does not require touching an infected individual.touching an infected surfacebreathing in infected air
11 Vectors carry a pathogen and transmit it into healthy cells. Direct contact requires touching an infected individual. Includes:kissingsexual intercoursehand shakingtick
12 Name the five general types of pathogens. Provide an example of each. Summary 31.1What conditions must be met before a specific pathogen is proved to cause a disease?Name the five general types of pathogens. Provide an example of each.Name three ways a pathogen can be spread.Contrast a virus with a bacteria. How do they differ in ways that they affect cells in the body?What is a vector? Provide 2 examples.
13 Ch 31.2 KEY CONCEPT The immune systems consists of organs, cells, and molecules that fight infections.
14 Many body systems protect you from pathogens. The immune system is the body system that fights off infection and pathogens.Many other tissues and systems help the immune system.SkinMucous membranes trap pathogensThe circulatory system transports immune cells.
15 Cells and proteins fight the body’s infections. White blood cells attack infections inside the body.Phagocytes engulf and destroy pathogens.T cells destroy infected cells.B cells produce antibodies.
16 Three types of proteins fight off invading pathogens. Complement proteins weaken pathogen membranes.Antibodies make pathogens ineffective.Interferons prevent viruses from infecting healthy cells.antibodypathogens
17 Immunity prevents a person from getting sick from a pathogen. In all immunity, pathogens are destroyed before you get sick.Passive immunity occurs without an immune response.mother’s milkgeneticsActive immunity occurs after a specific immune responseWhich would vaccines be?
18 How do phagocytes help to fight infection? Summary 31.2How does the immune system work with other body systems to prevent and fight disease?How do phagocytes help to fight infection?Name the two types of immunities. Which requires white blood cells? Explain.How do complement proteins differ from antibodies?If a person had a disease that prevented lymphocytes from maturing, how would the immune system’s response to infection change?
19 Nonspecific responses are the same for every pathogen. 31.3 Key Concept: Many body systems work to produce nonspecific responses.Nonspecific responses are the same for every pathogen.In inflammation, blood vessels become leaky.white blood cells move toward infection and damaged tissuecapillary wallextracellular spacewhite blood cellcharacterized by swelling, redness, and pain
20 In fever, body temperature increases. Low fevers stimulate white blood cells to mature.High fevers can cause seizure, brain damage, and even death.
21 Cells of the immune system produce specific responses. Specific immune responses begin with the detection of antigens.Antigens are surface proteins on pathogens.Each pathogen has a different antigen.virusantigens
22 There are two specific immune responses. Cellular immunity uses T cells to destroy infected body cells.pathogenantigensT cellreceptorsactivated T cellsmemory T cells
23 There are two specific immune responses. Humoral immunity uses B cells to produce antibodies.B cellT cellpathogenmemory B cellsactivated B cellsantibodies
24 Both responses produce memory cells. B cellT cellspecialized T and B cellsprovide acquired (active) immunity
25 The immune system rejects foreign tissues. Tissue rejection occurs in organ or tissue transplants.immune system detects protein markers on the donor tissuemakes antibodies against the donor’s tissue
26 Summary 31.3How does inflammation help the immune system to fight pathogens?What is the main difference between cellular and humoral immunity?What is tissue rejection, and why does it occur?Why might it be beneficial for a person to get blood or tissue donated from a relative instead of a non-related donor?What are the differences between a specific and nonspecific immune response?
27 31.4 Many methods are used to control pathogens. Antibiotics and antiseptics cause pathogens to burst.Antibiotics inside bodyAntiseptic outside
28 Vaccines artificially produce acquired immunity. Vaccines also control pathogens and disease.prevent illnesscontain the antigen of a weakened pathogen
29 Vaccination provides immunity. Antigens in a vaccine trigger an immune response, and memory B cells are made.1memory B cellsstimulates a specific immune responsecauses memory cells to be producedallows immune system to respond quickly to infectionhas such a fast response, a person will not get sickA memory B cell is stimulated when the real pathogen binds to it.2The B cell quickly activates and makes antibodies that fight the pathogens before you get sick.3
30 31.5 Allergies occur when the immune system responds to harmless antigens. Allergies are caused by allergens.Allergens: antigens that cause an allergic reaction.Allergens cause inflammation responses.Examples: foods, airborne, chemicals
31 Allergens can cause anaphylaxis. Anaphylaxis is an extreme inflammation response.Blood vessels and airways become too porous.Can cause death
32 In autoimmune diseases, white blood cells attack the body’s healthy cells. Autoimmune diseases are failures of the immune system.White blood cells cannot recognize healthy cells.Tissues fail because of attack.
33 Leukemia is cancer of the bone marrow. Ch 31.6Leukemia is cancer of the bone marrow.characterized by immature white blood cellscauses weakened immune systemLeads to opportunistic infections
34 HIV targets the immune system. The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a retrovirus.RNAHIV causes host cell DNA to copy its RNA, then incorporate it into the DNA of the cellLysogenic until triggered to lytic
35 HIV infection leads to AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome). HIV reproduces in and destroys T cells.The body cannot replace T cells fast enough.T cells cannot help in immune responses.HIVT celldead T cellantibodyactivated B cell
36 Summary Review Questions What is the difference between specific and nonspecific response?Summarize the steps the immune system takes when it your body is vaccinated.Under what conditions is an antigen called an allergen?What is an autoimmune disease and why might it be considered a failure of the immune system?How do AIDS and HIV differ?Which cells are affected by HIV and Leukemia? And what parts of the immune system do the influence?