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Basic Biology Tulsa County Master Gardeners 2014 Robyn Stroup.

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1 Basic Biology Tulsa County Master Gardeners 2014 Robyn Stroup

2 5 Kingdoms of Life Kingdom Animalia Kingdom Plantae Kingdom Fungi* Kingdom Protista* Kingdom Monera*

3 Kingdom Fungi What are fungi? Fungi are not plants. Do not contain chlorophyll. Include yeast, molds and mushrooms.

4 Fungi contd. Help decay organic matter to enrich soil which helps recycle carbon. Can cause disease in crops and ornamentals. Rusts, smuts, and blights are all common names of plant fungal infections.

5 Fungi contd. Most people think of mushrooms. Actually the mushroom is the spore producing structure of a fungi. The rest of the mushroom is composed of long threads called hyphae. A mass of hyphae is called a mycelium.



8 Micorrhizae fungi and plant roots Micorrhizae fungi are in mutual symbionic relationship with some plant roots where both benefit. In exchange for sugars, the plants produce via photosynthesis, the fungi supplies the plants with essential nutrients such as phosphorous. The hyphae can be found on the outside of plant roots or inside the root.




12 Antifungal agents or fungicides Fungal cells are much like animal cells. Therefore, fungicides are usually toxic to humans. Read labels carefully and follow directions closely!

13 Kingdom Protista Some have plant-like characteristics. Some have animal-like characteristics. Only common characteristic is that they can survive as single independent cells. Though some live in groups or colonies.

14 Protistans Very diverse group of organisms. Includes protozoans, slime molds, algae, and lichens.


16 Protozoans Many have animal-like characteristics in that they can move around. Important in the food chain as a food source for slightly larger organisms. Some can carry out photosynthesis.

17 Slime molds Can exist as independent cells, but will group together and move as a single unit. Found on decaying organic matter. Important as decomposers. Rarely a problem for gardeners. More of a temporary novelty.




21 Algae Found in aquatic environments. Important in aquatic food chain. Major contributor to oxygen in the atmosphere. Appear as a green slime wherever moisture is constantly present. Can be a problem in artificial ponds.



24 Algacides Often contain copper sulfate compounds. The effectiveness varies with environmental conditions. Less effective in waters with high alkalinity and pH Less effective when water temperatures are less than 15°C Algae are never eradicated so reapplication is necessary.

25 Algacides contd. Continuous application will result in copper build-up in sludge. Best way to control algae is reduce organic matter. Adding a UV light to filtration system works well too.

26 Lichens Lichens - two different organisms that are completely dependent on one another. A fungi and an algae. The fungi provides physical support and holds moisture for the algae. The algae carries out photosynthesis and provides the fungi with sugars. Often a desirable features on decorative rock.




30 Kingdom Monera Bacteria Much smaller than fungi or protistans. Very different cell structure. Can be carried via insects or garden tools. Requires antibiotics (anti-life) to control them. Sensitive to UV light.


32 Bacteria contd. One teaspoon of soil can contain up to 20,000 different species of bacteria. Many involved in decomposition. Some colonize the roots of legumes and fix nitrogen in the soil. Some breakdown complex chemicals like petroleum products – bioremediation. Some produce antibiotics – ex. Streptomyces. Actinobacteria produce ‘geosmin.’


34 Viruses Not classified in any Kingdom. Non-living entities. Can only survive by invading specific host cell types. Transmitted by insects, nematodes, or garden tools. Can travel via xylem and phloem throughout plant. No chemical treatment. Remove infected plant. Do not mulch!!!!!!!!!




38 Let’s take a short break


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