Presentation on theme: "Protists and Fungi Chapter 17.1, 18.1, & 18.3. Kingdom Protista: the most diverse of all eukaryotes Ch 17.1."— Presentation transcript:
Protists and Fungi Chapter 17.1, 18.1, & 18.3
Kingdom Protista: the most diverse of all eukaryotes Ch 17.1
Protists Protists: eukaryotes that are not animals, plants, or fungi Most protists are unicellular and free-living (not parasitic) Protists have the typical eukaryotic cell structure, including internal membranes, a nucleus surrounded by a nuclear envelope, and organelles such as mitochondria and chloroplasts (in some species)
Protist Complexity Being mostly unicellular, protists are considered the simplest form of eukaryotic organism Most human cells are highly specialized, carrying out only certain tasks The protist's one cell must consume and process food, respond to stimuli, excrete wastes, and reproduce Protists can justifiably be considered the most complex of eukaryotic cells, since each cell must carry out all of an organism's life functions.
Protist nutrition used for classifying Scientists group protists by lifestyle: animal-like, fungus-like, and plant-like protists Protozoans: Animal-like; heterotrophs that ingest (eat) food Algae: Plant-like; autotrophic making food through photosynthesis
Fungi Ch 18.1 & 18.3
Structure & Function of Fungi Hypha: a thread of cytoplasm; many hyphae together make up the body of a fungus Mycelium: interwoven mat of hyphae that functions as the feeding structure of a fungus functions as the feeding structure of a fungus fungal mycelium can grow as much as a kilometer of hyphae each day as it branches within its food
What’s the world’s largest organism? Scientists have discovered one enormous mycelium in Oregon that measures 5.5 kilometers across and spreads through almost 9 square kilometers of forest (larger than 1,600 football fields) Scientists also estimate that this fungus is at least 2,400 years old Qualifies as one of Earth's oldest and largest living organisms
Mycelium The branching mycelium enables the fungus to obtain food by absorptive nutrition Absorptive nutrition: method by which fungi absorb small organic molecules from their surroundings First, the fungus digests food outside its mycelium by secreting powerful enzymes into its surroundings These enzymes break down complex molecules into smaller molecules the mycelium can absorb
Fungi’s role Many fungi play an important role as decomposers Fungi recycle nutrients such as nitrogen and carbon by breaking down organic material Common food sources for fungi are fallen logs, bodies of dead animals, or the wastes of living organisms Parasitic fungi absorb nutrients from the cells or body fluids of living hosts Parasitic fungi cause about 80 percent of all plant diseases
Reproduction of Fungi Fungi reproduce by releasing large numbers of microscopic spores Spores: haploid single cell with a thick wall that functions in the dispersal stage in fungal reproduction spread by the wind and can withstand unfavorable conditions for long periods of time Most fungi produce spores asexually by mitosis at the tips of specialized hyphae Many fungi also produce spores sexually Haploid hyphae from different mycelia fuse together and combine their genetic material
Fungi have a major impact on other life Ch 18.3
Lichens Lichens: mutualistic pairing of a fungus and an alga The photosynthetic algae feed the fungus The fungal mycelium provides a suitable habitat for the algae, helping to absorb and retain water and minerals Lichen actually consists of millions of tiny algal cells within a mesh of fungal hyphae
Lichens One benefit of symbiosis is that lichens are able to live in environments where neither fungi nor algae could live alone Lichens are important pioneer organisms on newly cleared rock and soil surfaces, such as burned forests and volcanic flows In the arctic tundra, caribou graze on lichens at times of the year when other foods are unavailable As tough as lichens are, however, many do not tolerate air pollution Their absorption of minerals from rain and moist air makes them particularly sensitive to chemicals such as sulfur dioxide The death of sensitive lichens in an area can be an early warning of poor air quality.
Micorrhizae Micorrhizae: symbiotic relationships between fungal hyphae and plant roots The fungi absorb water and essential minerals from the soil and provide these materials to the plant The fungal mycelium greatly increases the surface area of the root in contact with the soil, which increases the plant's absorption of water and minerals The sugars produced by the plant nourish the fungi
Disease causing fungi Of the 100,000 known species of fungi about 30 percent are parasites, mostly on or in plants Dutch elm disease- has eliminated most elm trees in North America The fungus was accidentally introduced into the United States on logs sent from Europe after World War I Only about 50 species of fungus are known to be parasitic in humans and other animals Among these are yeast infections of the lungs, some of which can be fatal Other fungal parasites produce a skin disease called ringworm, so named because it appears as circular red areas on the skin Some fungi attack the feet and cause intense itching and sometimes blisters- known as athlete's foot, is highly contagious, but it can be treated with various fungicides
Commercial use of fungi The distinctive flavors of certain kinds of cheeses come from the fungi used to "ripen" them Yeasts are particularly important in baking, brewing, and winemaking Used in making of antibiotics In addition to edible mushrooms, other edible fungi include truffles In nature, truffles release strong odors that attract mammals and insects that dig up the fungi and disperse their spores
Role of fungi in chemical cycling Fungi and bacteria are the principal decomposers that supply ecosystems with the nutrients essential for plant growth The air is so loaded with fungal spores that as soon as a leaf falls or an insect dies, it is covered with spores that quickly grow into fungal hyphae Without decomposers, elements such as carbon and nitrogen would accumulate in organic matter Plants and the animals they feed would starve because elements taken from the soil would not be returned
Questions? 1.Which of the following is a symbiotic relationship? 1. Penicellium 2. Bread mold 3. Yeast 4. lichen 2.What do fungi produce that allows them to break down dead organisms? 3.How do humans use fungi? 1. To flavor certain foods 2. As a source of antibiotics 3. As ingredients in baking and brewing 4. All of the above
Questions? 4.What is an important role of fungi in an ecosystem? 5.What is the cause of the human disease ring worm?