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Introductory Mycology BOT 461/561. What are fungi? Eukaryotic, spore-bearing, heterotrophic organisms that produce extracellular enzymes and absorb their.

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Presentation on theme: "Introductory Mycology BOT 461/561. What are fungi? Eukaryotic, spore-bearing, heterotrophic organisms that produce extracellular enzymes and absorb their."— Presentation transcript:

1 Introductory Mycology BOT 461/561

2 What are fungi? Eukaryotic, spore-bearing, heterotrophic organisms that produce extracellular enzymes and absorb their nutrition.

3 Body Plan unicellular (yeast), filamentous, or both (=dimorphic) Hypha (pl. hyphae) is the basic “cellular” unit in filamentous fungi; they may be septate or coenocytic (aseptate); collectively a mycelium limited tissue differentiation and division of labor somatic & reproductive structures plectenchyma: all organized fungal tissue, somatic & reproductive

4 Nuclear Status Eukaryotic; uni, bi- or multinucleate Haploid, diploid (less frequent) Monokaryon (1 nucleus per hyphal compartment) Dikaryon (2 nuclei per hyphal compartment) Homokaryotic Heterokaryotic

5 Mitosis –intranuclear: nuclear membrane doesn't breakdown during mitosis –centric in flagellated forms; typical centrioles of eukaryotes –noncentric in nonflagellated forms; possess spindle pole bodies (SPBs); differ from centrioles in lacking microtubular component

6 Organelles typical eukaryote assemblage of organelles + fungal specific ones mitochondria endoplasmic reticulum Golgi equivalents single cisternal elements vacuoles microbodies funx in fatty acid degradation, N metabolism

7 Cell Wall well defined chitin  1-4 n-acetyal glucosamine  -glucans polymers of glucose  1-3 glucose cellulose in some  1-4 glucose chitin  -glucans Chitin Cellulose  1-3 glucan

8 fungal specific organelles involved in cell wall growth Spitzenkorper associated with growing hyphal tips in septate fungi chitosome microvesicles transporting chitin synthases to growing cell wall

9 Nutrition Heterotrophic Secrete extracellular enzymes Absorptive nutrition Saprobes: decay dead organic matter pathogens: biotroph, necrotroph symbionts: parasites - commensals - mutualists

10 Spores - a minute propagative unit functioning as a seed, but differing from it in that a spore does not contain a preformed embryo Fruiting body - any complex fungal structure that contains or bears spores; a sporocarp

11 Reproduction Sexual reproduction: spores meiotically derived nuclei Homothallic (selfing) Heterothallic (outcrossing) Monoecious or dioecious Genetic mating system –MAT loci –1 to hundreds of “sexes” Asexual reproduction –Spores with mitotically derived nuclei

12 Misc. Life cycle: simple to complex; wide variety Sporocarps: microscopic or macroscopic, limited tissue differientiation Habitat: ubiquitous Studied by mycologists!!!!!!

13 What are fungi? Eukaryotic, spore-bearing, heterotrophic organisms that produce extracelluar enzymes and absorb their nutrition.

14 Fungi vs. "fungi" Based on the phenotypic definitions or traits attributed to fungi, fungi do not comprise a single monophyletic group of organisms more than one evolutionary origin not all "fungi" are members of the Kingdom Fungi

15 FUNGI (e.g., mushrooms, yeasts) MICROSPORIDIA METAZOA (Animals) DICTYOSTELIDAE MYXOGASTRIDAE LOBOSA ANGIOSPERMAE (Green Plants) CHLOROPHYCEAE RHODOPHYTA GLAUCOPHYTA OOMYCETES PHAEOPHYCEAE (Brown algae) CILIOPHORA APICOMPLEXA KINETOPLASTIDA EUGLENOIDEA ACRASIDAE VAHLKAMPFIIDAE PARABASALLA DIPLOMONADIDA Slime molds Phylogeny Of Eukaryotes (some water molds Sudden Oak Death) based on DNA sequence data

16 Some characters that separate the the Kingdom Fungi from “protistan fungi” Kingdom Fungi Protistan fungi mitochondria: cristae flattened cristae tubular motile cells: no motile cells or motile cells with anterior posterior flagellumor lateral heterokont flagella cell wall carbohydrate:  glucans, chitin  glucans, cellulose lysine biosynthesis:alpha-aminoadepic acid (AAA) diaminopimelic (DAP) storage compoundglycogenmycolaminarins sterolsergosterolfucosterol Phyla: Chytridiomycota Oomycota (emphasizedZygomycotaMyxomycota in class)Glomeromycota Dictyosteliomycota Basidiomycota Ascomycota

17 General characteristics of the Phyla of the Kingdom Fungi basal lineages Chytridiomycota: (800) unicellular to mycelial (coenocytic) zoospore with single posterior whiplash flagellum aquatic & terrestrial no sporocarp production Zygomycota: (1000) generally coenocytic mycelium production of zygosporangia & zygospores no sporocarp production Glomeromycota: (200) formerly part of Zygomycota coenocytic mycelium no known sexual reproduction arbuscular mycorrhizae (Glomerales) no sporocarp production

18 Basidiomycota: (22500) septate mycelium clamp connections complex dolipore septa dikaryotic, haploid mycelium production of exospores (basidiospores) on a basidium production of complex sporocarps Ascomycota: (35000) septate mycelium simple septa monokaryotic, haploid mycelium production of endospores (ascospores) in an ascus production of complex sporocarps often dominant asexual reproduction

19 Chytridiomycota + Zygomycota Ascomycota Basidiomycota Glomeromycota Chytridiomycota Phylogeny of Kingdom Fungi Regularly septate hyphae Multiple losses of flagellum X X chitin* glycogen* mito cristae* ergosterol post smooth flagellum* *share with animals asci + ascospores basidia + basidiospores dolipore + clamp connections

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21 Silurian440hypha, spores?Ascomycota Devonian410wood decayBasidiomycota mycorrhizaeGlomeromycota zoosporangiaChytridiomycota Carboniferous360zygosporesZygomycota clamp connectionsBasidiomycota ?fruit bodies Permian286white rotBasidiomycota Triassic245wood decayBasidiomycota mycorrhizaeGlomeromycota Jurassic208shelf fungusBasidiomycota Cretaceous144rustsBasidiomycota polypores conidiaAscomycota Tertiary65extant morphologies Fossil Record of Kingdom Fungi - How old are fungi?

22 Hymenomycetes mushrooms, shelf fungi jelly fungi, coral crusts, puffballs Ustilaginomycetes smuts Urediniomycetes rusts, marine yeasts crusts 3 Major Clades - Classes - of the Basidiomycota

23 Kingdom - Fungi Phylum - Basidiomycota Class - Hymenomycetes Order - Agaricales Family - Amanitaceae Genus - Amanita Species - A. muscaria Amanita muscaria Nomenclature

24 Introductory Mycology BOT 461/561


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