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1 Fungi Chapter 30. 2 Outline Shared Characteristics The Body of a Fungus How Fungi Reproduce How Fungi Obtain Nutrients Ecology of Fungi Five Major Groups.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Fungi Chapter 30. 2 Outline Shared Characteristics The Body of a Fungus How Fungi Reproduce How Fungi Obtain Nutrients Ecology of Fungi Five Major Groups."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Fungi Chapter 30

2 2 Outline Shared Characteristics The Body of a Fungus How Fungi Reproduce How Fungi Obtain Nutrients Ecology of Fungi Five Major Groups of Fungi Lichens Mycorrhizae Endophytes Symbioses

3 3 Shared Characteristics Distinctive fungal features – Fungi are heterotrophs. – Fungi have several cell types. – Some fungi have a dikaryon stage. – Fungi have cell walls that include chitin. – Fungi undergo nuclear mitosis.

4 4 The Body of a Fungus Fungi exist mainly in the form of slender filaments (hyphae). – long chains of cells joined end-to-end divided by cross-walls (septa)  rarely form complete barrier  cytoplasm freely streams in hyphae – mycelium - mass of connected hyphae  grows through and penetrates substrate

5 5 The Body of a Fungus Fungi cell walls are formed of polysaccharides and chitin. – not cellulose like those of plants Mitosis is unique. – nuclear envelope does not break down and re-form  spindle apparatus formed within  spindle plaques take place of centrioles

6 6 How Fungi Reproduce Differ from most animals and plants in that each compartment of hypha can contain one, two or more nuclei – monokaryotic - each compartment has a single nucleus – dikaryotic - two distinct nuclei within each hyphae compartment

7 7 How Fungi Reproduce Possible for many nuclei to intermingle in common cytoplasm of fungal mycelium which can lack distinct cells – heterokaryotic – dikaryotic or multinucleate hypha has nuclei from genetically distinct individuals – homokaryotic – hyphae whose nuclei are genetically similar to one another

8 8 How Fungi Reproduce Fungi are capable of both sexual and asexual reproduction. – Fungi reproduce sexually after two hyphae of opposite mating type fuse.  in some fungi fusion two haploid cells immediately results in diploid cell (2n)  basidiomycetes and ascomycetes have dikaryotic stage (1n + 1n) before parental nuclei fuse to form diploid nucleus

9 9 How Fungi Reproduce Spores most common means of reproduction – may form from asexual or sexual processes – most often dispersed by wind but some spread by insects or other small animals – chytrids only group to retain ancestral flagella and motile zoospores

10 10 How Fungi Obtain Nutrients All fungi obtain food by secreting digestive enzymes and then absorbing the organic molecules produced (external digestion). – extensive hyphae network provides enormous surface area for absorption – many fungi able to break down cellulose in wood

11 11 Metabolic Pathways Anaerobic fermentation provides flavor for wine and cheese. Biochemical manufacturing of organic substances – food – pharmaceuticals Yeasts break down carbon-containing products. – bioremediation

12 12 Ecology of Fungi Fungi and bacteria are the principal decomposers in the biosphere. – mineral cycling  Fungi are virtually the only organisms capable of breaking down lignin. Fungi often act as disease-causing organisms for both plants and animals. – agricultural damage – human health

13 13 Ecology of Fungi Mutualistic associations – lichens - fungi and green algae – mycorrhizae - fungi and plant roots

14 14 Four Major Groups of Fungi Four major groups – Chytridiomycota – Zygomycota – Basidiomycota – Ascomycota

15 15 Chytridiomycota aquatic, flagellated fungi – most closely related to ancestral fungi

16 16 Zygomycota includes common bread molds produces temporarily dormant zygosporangia sexual reproduction occurs by fusion of gametangia asexual reproduction most common – hyphae produce clumps of erect stalks - sporangiophores  form sporangia

17 17 Zygomycota

18 18 Basidiomycota Most familiar fungi (mushrooms, toadstools, puffballs, rusts, and smuts) – named for characteristic sexual reproductive structure, basidium Four haploid products of meiosis incorporated into basidiospores Mycelium made up of monokaryotic hyphae is called primary mycelium. – fusion of different mating types forms dikaryotic, secondary mycelium.

19 19 Basidiomycota

20 20 Ascomycota Very large group including yeasts, common molds, and morels Named for reproductive structure ascus – haploid zygotic nucleus formed within – asci differentiated with ascocarp Asexual reproduction takes place in conidia spores at the end of conidiophores.

21 21 Ascomycota

22 22 Ascomycota Yeasts – unicellular - most reproduction is asexual and takes place by cell fission or budding  ferment carbohydrates  play a leading role in genetic research

23 23 Lichens Lichens are symbiotic associations between a fungus and a photosynthetic partner. – usually ascomycetes  Specialized fungal hyphae penetrate photosynthetic cells and transfer nutrients to fungal partner.  Durable fungus, combined with photosynthetic properties, has enabled lichens to invade harsh climates. – extremely sensitive to pollutants

24 24 Mycorrhizae Roots of about 90% of all kinds of vascular plants are involved in mutualistic symbiotic relationships (mycorrhizae). – arbuscular mycorrhizae - fungal hyphae penetrate outer cells of plant root  most common – ectomycorrhizae - hyphae surround, but do not penetrate, cell walls of roots

25 25 Mycorrhizae

26 26 Endophytes Endophytic fungi live inside plants in the intercellular spaces. – some may protect their hosts from herbivores by producing chemical deterrents

27 27 Mutualistic Animal Symbioses A range of mutualistic fungal-animal symbioses has been identified. – ruminants – leaf-cutter ants

28 28 Fungal Parasites and Pathogens Chytridiomycosis - emergent infectious disease in amphibians – chytrid Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis Aflatoxins - carcinogenic compounds produced by strains of Aspergillus flavus – grows on corn, peanuts, cotton seeds

29 29 Summary Shared Characteristics The Body of a Fungus How Fungi Reproduce How Fungi Obtain Nutrients Ecology of Fungi Five Major Groups of Fungi Lichens Mycorrhizae Endophytes Symbioses

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