Basic fungal life cycle fig. 13.5b 1. Zygotic - haploid phase is dominant
Basic fungal life cycle fig. 31.2 2. Fertilization doesn’t happen all at once Plasmogamy - fusion of cytoplasm Karyogamy - fusion of nuclei (gametes) heterokaryotic dikaryotic
3. Yeast for brewing and baking: Saccharomyces cerevisiae
B. Zygomycota 1. No dikaryotic growth 2. Both sexual and asexual sporangia
C. Ascomycota - Life cycle 1. Dikaryotic growth 2. Fruiting body: ascocarp 3. Fertile layer with asci 4. Eight ascospores per ascus (sac) 5. Asexual reproduction via conidia
D. Basidiomycota - Life cycle 1. Dikaryotic growth 2. Fruiting body: basidiocarp 3. Fertile layer on gills with basidia (“clubs”) 4. Four spores per basidium 5. Asexual reproduction is rare
D. Basidiomycota - structure 2. Fruiting body: basidiocarp 3. Fertile layer on gills with basidia (“clubs”) 4. Four spores per basidium
E. Deuteromycota - “fungi imperfecti” 1. Not a true phylum (not a natural group): polyphyletic 2. Fungi with no known sexual reproduction 3. Asexual reproduction by conidia
III. Fungal Mutualisms Definitions: Symbiosis - 2 organisms living together in intimate physical contact Mutualism - both organisms benefit from the relationship Parasitism - one benefits, one loses Commensalism - one benefits, other not affected
III. Fungal Mutualisms Questions: 1. Definition of mutualism vs. symbiosis 2. What fungal and photosynthetic partners are involved? 3. What is the “currency” of the mutualism? How do the partners benefit? 4. What is the structure and/or morphology of the organismal interaction? 5. What is the ecological importance?
FUNGAL LIFE CYCLES ASEXUALHAPLOID HAPLOID WITH RESTRICTED DIPLOID HAPLOID-DIKARYOTICDIKARYOTICHAPLOID-DIPLOIDDIPLOID
MITOSPORES Result from mitosis and cell division No change in nuclear ploidy Usually produced in great quantities Resistance to unfavorable environmental conditions varies Are important in dispersal
MITOSPORES motile - zoospores non-motile - produced from hyphae - conidia non-motile - produced from sporangia - sporangiospores
MEIOSPORES Result from meiosis Are haploid Are genetically different from parent hyphae May serve as a resistant stage Are important in dispersal
CHLAMYDOSPORES Nuclear ploidy same as parent cell Formed from a vegetative cell or cells Shape may reflect cell shape Wall may become thickened and dark in color Are resistant to unfavorable environmental conditions
GERMINATION PROCESS Water content increases; spore swells; enzymes go into solution. Vacuolation increases. Endoplasmic reticulum & other organelles increase Respiration increases & mitochondria enlarge and form more cristae.
GERMINATION PROCESS Vesicles involved in wall synthesis appear. Lipids disappear as they are used up as an energy source. An opening on the spore wall appears or the plug in a germ pore is removed. A hyphal tube, called the germ tube, emerges from the opening or pore.
SPORE CHARACTERISTICS Low water content. Large quantities of storage compounds. Wall structure different from parent hyphae. Wall differentiation (pitted, warted, spinulose, gelatinous sheaths, appendages). All cellular organelles are present except a vacuole.
General Fungi Life Cycle Diploid only transient in most fungal species Dikaryotic if “hetero” is 2 haploid nuclei/cell Mitosis products Note mostly haploid or heterokaryotic
Molds Molds are asexually reproducing (i.e., spore- forming), filamentous fungi (i.e., not yeasts) This is the mold Penicillium from which the antibiotic penicillin is isolated
Yeasts Yeasts are single-celled fungi Yeasts as a taxon would be polyphyletic Yeasts tend to grow asexually (no spores) Yeasts tend to inhabit very moist habitats, which includes plant and animal tissues
Ascomycetes: Sac Fungi Ascomycete form asci, which are linear sacs containing eight ascospores In many the ascomycetes the asci are arrayed into fruiting bodies called ascocarps Asexually produced reproductive cells are called conidia Many ascomycetes are important plant saprobes: they decompose dead plant material Have extended dikaryotic stage
Basidiomycetes: Club Fungi Both mushrooms and shelf fungi are club fungi Club fungi are not limited to just mushrooms and shelf fungi, however Best lignin decomposers of all fungi Like sac fungi, have a long- lived dikaryotic stage Basidiocarps produce basidiospores
Basidiocarps Mushrooms, etc., are basidiocarps “By concentrating growth in the hyphae of mushrooms, a basidiomycete mycelium can quickly erect its fruiting structures in just a few hours”
Basidicarps and Basidia Basidia with basidiospores