2 Outline the biosocial approach to gender development. (4 marks) CHOOSE 4 of these pointsInteraction between biological and social environment. The interaction of nature and nurture leads to gender identity.Biological factors important, particularly male / female genitals.Infant is labelled as boy or girl, and is then treated accordingly.XX or XY – hormones have an organising effect on brain development (e.g. sexually dimorphic nucleus). Infants’ behaviour is therefore biologically determined. Parents interact with what may be relatively small differences between male and female behaviour (e.g. accepting more rough and tumble play in boys).According to Money there is a critical period of about 0 to 3 years. Reassigning a baby’s sex during that time will not lead to problems. After that time, a child’s gender identity has been established and therefore cannot be changed without difficulties for the child.Gender dysphoria could be explained by a mismatch between biologically determined brain development and genitalia of the opposite sex that lead to being treated differently to how the child feels.
3 Outline social factors that may influence gender roles. (4 marks) AGAIN, CHOOSE SOME OF THIS & PERHAPS ADD AN EXAMPLE.Formal agents have responsibility for socialising children – including families, teachers, religion.Informal agents shape gender values, behaviour and beliefs e.g. media, It is a by-product of something intentional e.g. selling a product.Parents act as roles models, as do siblings and peers. Imitation of observed behaviour can be reinforced or punished. In general, gender appropriate behaviour is rewarded by parents, particularly fathers.Children observe gender roles and can learn through vicarious reinforcement, that is seeing someone else being rewarded for a behaviour.In these ways, appropriate gender roles for a particular society or culture are learnt.
4 Use research evidence to assess the influence of such factors on gender roles. (16 marks) First decide if you will interpret ‘such factors’ as social or biosocial or both. Possible end points. Biological factors are the most important ones. Social factors are the most important. Biosocial explanation is best. Basically more nature, more nurture or both. Evidence for (2 studies?) Evidence against (2 studies?) Which evidence is more convincing and why, leading to your end point. Conclusion. BUT
5 Evaluation NO marks for describing studies as no A01 left. Instead use evidence rather than describe it e.g.“A number of studies have demonstrated the importance of social factors. For example, Hagan and Kuebli found that fathers were more protective of their daughters than their sons when the children were crossing a raised beam. Mothers treated daughters and sons more equally. This suggests that fathers could influence gender roles more than mothers by encouraging risky behaviour in sons and by encouraging daughters to view males as protectors. However…”(80 children – relatively small sample size so difficult to generalise to the population. Mostly white, middle-class so again may not apply to all. Only one situation observed therefore could not say relevant to all gender roles. Perhaps mothers are more used to supervising children on play equipment than fathers…)Don’t forget cultural is part of social and very useful for gender roles.
6 When to describe research IF e.g. the question says ‘Outline and evaluate research into…’ or ‘Discuss research into’.IF the questions says ‘Discuss research into…’ theory will give you A01 marks, too, because it is assumed that theory is based on research.