2 What Is Motivation?DirectionIntensityPersistence
3 Defining Motivation Motivation The processes that account for an individual’s intensity, direction, and persistence of effort toward attaining a goal.Key ElementsIntensity: how hard a person triesDirection: toward beneficial goalPersistence: how long a person tries
4 Hierarchy of Needs Theory (Maslow) There is a hierarchy of five needs—physiological, safety, social, esteem, and self-actualization; as each need is substantially satisfied, the next need becomes dominant.Self-ActualizationThe drive to become what one is capable of becoming.
5 Self Esteem Social Safety Physiological Maslow’sHierarchyof NeedsSelfEsteemSocialSafetyPhysiological
6 Assumptions of Maslow’s Hierarchy Movement Up the PyramidIndividuals cannot move to the next higher level until all needs at the current (lower) level are satisfied.Maslow ApplicationA homeless personwill not be motivated tomeditate!Individuals therefore must move up the hierarchy in order.
7 Two-Factor Theory (Frederick Herzberg) Two-Factor (Motivation-Hygiene) TheoryIntrinsic factors are related to job satisfaction, while extrinsic factors are associated with dissatisfaction.Hygiene FactorsFactors—such as company policy and administration, supervision, and salary—that, when adequate in a job, placate workers. When factors are adequate, people will not be dissatisfied.
8 Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory Bottom Line: Satisfaction and dissatisfaction are not opposites of the same thing!Hygiene FactorsSalaryWork ConditionsCompany PoliciesMotivatorsAchievementResponsibilityGrowthSeparate ConstructsHygiene Factors—Extrinsic and Related to DissatisfactionMotivation Factors—Intrinsic and Related to Satisfaction
10 Contrasting Views of Satisfaction and Dissatisfaction
11 What Would Herzberg Say? What Would Maslow Say?
12 Theory X and Theory Y (Douglas McGregor) Assumes that employees dislike work, lack ambition, avoid responsibility, and must be directed and coerced to perform.Theory YAssumes that employees like work, seek responsibility, are capable of making decisions, and exercise self-direction and self-control when committed to a goal.
14 ERG Theory (Clayton Alderfer) There are three groups of core needs: existence, relatedness, and growth.Core NeedsExistence: provision of basic material requirements.Relatedness: desire for relationships.Growth: desire for personal development.Concepts:More than one need can be operative at the same time.If a higher-level need cannot be fulfilled, the desire to satisfy a lower-level need increases.
16 David McClelland’s Theory of Needs Need for AchievementThe drive to excel, to achieve in relation to a set of standards, to strive to succeed.Need for AffiliationThe desire for friendly and close personal relationships.nAchnPownAffNeed for PowerThe need to make others behave in a way that they would not have behaved otherwise.Bottom LineIndividuals have different levels of needs in each of these areas, and those levels will drive their behavior.
17 The Theory of Needs Need for Achievement Need for David Power (nAch)The Theoryof NeedsDavidMcClellandNeed forPower(nPow)Need forAffiliation(nAff)
19 Cognitive Evaluation Theory Providing an extrinsic reward for behavior that had been previously only intrinsically rewarding tends to decrease the overall level of motivationThe theory may be relevant only to jobs that are neither extremely dull nor extremely interesting.Hint: For this theory, think about how fun it is to read in the summer, but once reading is assigned to you for a grade, you don’t want to do it!
21 Goal-Setting Theory (Edwin Locke) Basic Premise: That specific and difficult goals, with self-generated feedback, lead to higher performance.But, the relationship between goals and performance will depend on:Goal commitment“I want to do it & I can do it”Task characteristics (simple, well-learned)National culture
22 Goal-Setting Theory (Edwin Locke) The theory that specific and difficult goals, with feedback, lead to higher performance.Factors influencing the goals–performance relationship:Goal commitment, adequate self-efficacy, task characteristics, and national culture.Self-EfficacyThe individual’s belief that he or she is capable of performing a task.
23 Goal-Setting Theory Specificity Challenge Feedback Participation CommitmentSelf-efficacyCharacteristicsCulture
24 Goal Setting in Action: MBO Programs Management By Objectives ProgramsCompany wide goals and objectivesGoals aligned at all levelsBased on Goal Setting Theory
25 What Is MBO? Key Elements Goal specificity Management by Objectives (MBO)A program that encompasses specific goals, participative set, for an explicit time period, with feedback on goal progressKey ElementsGoal specificityParticipative decision makingAn explicit time periodPerformance feedback
27 Linking MBO and Goal-Setting Theory MBO Goal-Setting TheoryGoal Specificity Yes YesGoal Difficulty Yes YesFeedback Yes YesParticipation Yes No (qualified)
28 Why MBOs Fail Unrealistic expectations about MBO results Lack of commitment by top managementFailure to allocate reward properlyCultural incompatibilities
29 Enhances probability that goals will be achieved Self-EfficacyAn individual’s feeling that s/he can complete a task (e.g. “I know I can!”)Enhances probability that goals will be achievedNot to be confused with:Self-esteem, which is:Individuals’ degree of liking or disliking themselves
31 Note: Basic Premise/Mechanism of Pygmalion and Galatea Effects Four Ways of Increasing Self-efficacy (Bandura)Enactive MasteryVicarious ModelingVerbal PersuasionArousalNote: Basic Premise/Mechanism of Pygmalion and Galatea Effects
32 Reinforcement TheoryThe assumption that behavior is a function of its consequences.Concepts:Behavior is environmentally caused.Behavior can be modified (reinforced) by providing (controlling) consequences.Reinforced behavior tends to be repeated.
33 Reinforcement Theory Consequences Behavior Rewards No Rewards Punishment
34 Job Design Theory Job Characteristics Model Identifies five job characteristics and their relationship to personal and work outcomes.Characteristics:Skill varietyTask identityTask significanceAutonomyFeedback
35 Job Design Theory (cont’d) Job Characteristics ModelJobs with skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy, and for which feedback of results is given, directly affect three psychological states of employees:Knowledge of resultsMeaningfulness of workPersonal feelings of responsibility for resultsIncreases in these psychological states result in increased motivation, performance, and job satisfaction.
36 Job Design Theory (cont’d) Skill VarietyThe degree to which a job requires a variety of different activities.Task IdentityThe degree to which the job requires completion of a whole and identifiable piece of work.Task SignificanceThe degree to which the job has a substantial impact on the lives or work of other people.
37 Job Design Theory (cont’d) AutonomyThe degree to which the job provides substantial freedom and discretion to the individual in scheduling the work and in determining the procedures to be used in carrying it out.FeedbackThe degree to which carrying out the work activities required by a job results in the individual obtaining direct and clear information about the effectiveness of his or her performance.
38 Computing a Motivating Potential Score People who work on jobs with high core dimensions are generally more motivated, satisfied, and productive.Job dimensions operate through the psychological states in influencing personal and work outcome variables rather than influencing them directly.
39 Job Design Theory (cont’d) Social Information Processing (SIP) ModelThe fact that people respond to their jobs as they perceive them rather than to the objective jobs themselves.Concept: Employee attitudes and behaviors are responses to social cues by others.
40 Social Information Processing Model (SIP) Concepts of the SIP ModelEmployees adopt attitudes and behaviors in response to the social cues provided by others (e.g., coworkers) with whom they have contact.Employees’ perception of the characteristics of their jobs is as important as the actual characteristics of their jobs.
41 Equity Theory Equity Theory Individuals compare their job inputs and outcomes with those of others and then respond to eliminate any inequities.Referent Comparisons:Self-insideSelf-outsideOther-insideOther-outside
42 Equity Theory (cont’d) Choices for dealing with inequity:Change inputs (slack off)Change outcomes (increase output)Distort/change perceptions of selfDistort/change perceptions of othersChoose a different referent personLeave the field (quit the job)
43 Equity Theory Ratio Employee’s Comparison* Perception Outcomes A Inputs AOutcomes BInputs B<=>Inequity (Under-Rewarded)EquityInequity (Over-Rewarded)*Where A is the employee, and B is a relevant other or referent.Equity Theory
44 Equity Theory (cont’d) Propositions relating to inequitable pay:Overrewarded hourly employees produce more than equitably rewarded employees.Overrewarded piece-work employees produce less, but do higher quality piece work.Underrewarded hourly employees produce lower quality work.Underrewarded employees produce larger quantities of lower-quality piece work than equitably rewarded employees
45 Equity Theory (cont’d) Distributive JusticePerceived fairness of the amount and allocation of rewards among individuals.Procedural JusticeThe perceived fairness of the process to determine the distribution of rewards.
46 Expectancy Theory Expectancy Theory (Victor Vroom) The strength of a tendency to act in a certain way depends on the strength of an expectation that the act will be followed by a given outcome and on the attractiveness of that outcome to the individual.
47 Expectancy Theory Relationships Effort–Performance RelationshipThe probability that exerting a given amount of effort will lead to performance.Performance–Reward RelationshipThe belief that performing at a particular level will lead to the attainment of a desired outcome.Rewards–Personal Goals RelationshipThe degree to which organizational rewards satisfy an individual’s goals or needs and the attractiveness of potential rewards for the individual.
49 An Integrative Model of Motivation HighnAchEquityComparisonO OIA IBAbilityOpportunityPerformanceAppraisal CriteriaIndividualEffortIndividualPerformanceOrganizationRewardsPersonalGoalsPerformanceAppraisalSystemReinforcementDominantNeedsGoals DirectBehavior