Presentation on theme: "The term “Motivation” comes from the latin word “movere” which means “to move”. It is a process that starts with a physiological or psychological deficiency."— Presentation transcript:
The term “Motivation” comes from the latin word “movere” which means “to move”. It is a process that starts with a physiological or psychological deficiency or need that activates behavior or a drive.
It is an inspirational process which impels the members of the team to pull their weight effectively, to give their loyalty to the group,to carry out properly the tasks that they have accepted and generally to play an effective part in the job that the group has undertaken.
Key Elements 1.Intensity: how hard a person tries 2.Direction: toward beneficial goal 3.Persistence: how long a person tries Key Elements 1.Intensity: how hard a person tries 2.Direction: toward beneficial goal 3.Persistence: how long a person tries
What Is Motivation? Direction Persistence Intensity
Basic Motivation Process Unsatisfied need Tension drives Search behavior Satisfied need Reduction of tension
Theories of Motivation 1.Early Theories of Motivation - Hierarchy of Needs Theory - Two-Factor Theory - Theory X, Theory Y, Theory Z 2. Contemporary Theories of Motivation - ERG Theory - McClelland’s Theory of Needs - Cognitive Evaluation Theory - Goal-Setting Theory - Reinforcement Theory - Equity Theory - Expectancy Theory
Maslow’s Need Hierarchy proposed by Abraham Maslow. Maslow's theory suggests that the most basic level of needs must be met before the individual will strongly desire (or focus motivation upon) the secondary or higher level needs.
Hierarchy of Needs Theory Need for self- actualization need To realize ones fullest potential Physiological Needs Need to satisfies the basic biological needs for food water, oxygen, sleep and elimination of bodily wastes Esteem needs Needs to achieve,to gain competence,to get respect from others Belonging and love needs: need to love and be loved, need to affiliate with others and be accepted Safety Needs Need for safety and security Lower-Order Needs Needs that are satisfied externally; physiological and safety needs. Higher-Order Needs Needs that are satisfied internally; social, esteem, and self-actualization needs.
Assumptions of Maslow’s Hierarchy Movement up the Pyramid Individuals cannot move to the next higher level until all needs at the current (lower) level are satisfied. Maslow Application: A homeless person will not be motivated to meditate! Maslow Application: A homeless person will not be motivated to meditate! Individuals therefore must move up the hierarchy in order
Needs Hierarc hy Self-Actualization Needs Challenging projects, opportunities for innovation and creativity, Esteem Needs Important projects, recognition, prestigious office location Belongingness Needs Good coworkers, peers, superiors customers Safety Needs Job security; benefits, like life insurance; safety regulations Physiological Needs Basic pay, work space, heat, water, company cafeteria
Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory Bottom Line: Satisfaction and Dissatisfaction are not Opposite Ends of the Same Thing! –Hygiene Factors--- Extrinsic & Related to Dissatisfaction –Motivation Factors--- Intrinsic and Related to Satisfaction Hygiene Factors: Salary Work Conditions Company Policies Motivators: Achievement Responsibility Growth
The Motivation-Hygiene Theory / 2 factor theory Motivators Hygiene Factors Traditional View SatisfactionDissatisfaction Satisfaction No Satisfaction No dissatisfaction Dissatisfaction Herzberg’s View
Theory X Managers See Workers As… Disliking Work Avoiding Responsibility Having Little Ambition Theory Y Managers See Workers As… Managers See Workers As… Enjoying Work Accepting Responsibility Self-Directed
Theory X and Theory Y (Douglas McGregor) Assumptions of Theory X 1.Employees inherently dislike work and, whenever possible, will attempt to avoid it; 2.Since employees dislike work, they must be coerced, controlled, or threatened with punishment to achieve goals; 3.Employees will avoid responsibilities and seek formal direction whenever possible; 4.Most workers place security above all other factors associated with work and will display little ambition.
Theory X and Theory Y (Douglas McGregor) Assumptions of Theory Y 1.Employees can view work as being as natural as rest or play; 2.People will exercise self-direction and self-control if they are committed to the objectives; 3.The average person can learn to accept, even seek, responsibility; 4.The ability to make innovative decisions is widely dispersed throughout the population and is not necessarily the sole province of those in management positions.
Theory Z EmploymentLong term Decision makingWith consensus ResponsibilityIndividual Evaluation& promotionslow controlimplicit Career pathModerately specialized concernHolistic, including family
Theory of Needs Theory was given by David McClelland. He proposed that an individual’s specific needs are acquired over time and are shaped by one’s life experiences. Most of these needs can be classified as either achievement, affiliation or power.
David McClelland’s Theory of Needs Need for Achievement The drive to excel, to achieve in relation to a set of standards, to strive to succeed. Need for Affiliation The desire for friendly and close personal relationships due to the fact that people are social animals. Need for Power The need to make others behave in a way that they would not have behaved otherwise. Ability to influence/ manipulate others. Bottom Line: Individuals have different levels of needs in each of these areas, and those levels will drive their behavior
People with high need for power have great concern for exercising influence and control. They are outspoken and get involved in conversation. People with high need for affiliation derive pleasure from being loved. They enjoy helping others. People with high need for achievement have characteristics like acquiring moderate risks, immediate feedback, preoccupation with tasks, less dedication. People with high need for achievement have characteristics like acquiring moderate risks, immediate feedback, preoccupation with tasks, less dedication.
Equity Theory Referent Comparisons: Self-inside Self-outside Other-inside Other-outside Referent Comparisons: Self-inside Self-outside Other-inside Other-outside Equity Theory Individuals compare their job inputs and outcomes with those of others and then respond to eliminate any inequities.
1.Self-inside: An employee’s experiences in a different position inside his or her current organization. 2.Self-outside: An employee’s experiences in a situation or position outside his or her current organization. 3.Other-inside: Another individual or group of individuals inside the employee’s organization. 4.Other-outside: Another individual or group of indiv iduals outside the employee’s organization.
This theory is based on two assumptions about human behaviour. Individuals make contributions (inputs) for which they expect certain outcomes (rewards). Inputs include such things as the person’s past training and experience, special knowledge, personal characteristics etc. Outcomes include pay recognition, promotion, prestige, fringe benefits etc. Individuals decide whether or not a particular exchange is satisfactory, by comparing their inputs and outcomes to those of others in the form of a ratio. Equity exists when an individual concludes that his/her own outcome/input ratio is equal to that of others.
Choices for dealing with inequity: 1.Change inputs 2.Change outcomes (increase output) 3.Distort/change perceptions of self 4.Distort/change perceptions of others 5.Choose a different referent person 6.Leave the field (quit the job) Choices for dealing with inequity: 1.Change inputs 2.Change outcomes (increase output) 3.Distort/change perceptions of self 4.Distort/change perceptions of others 5.Choose a different referent person 6.Leave the field (quit the job)
Expectancy Theory Victor Vroom’s Expectancy Theory argues that an employee will be motivated to exert a high level of effort when he or she believes that effort will lead to a good performance appraisal; that a good appraisal will lead to organizational rewards such as bonus, a salary increase, or a promotion; and that the rewards will satisfy the employee’s personal goals.
The theory, therefore, focuses on three relationships: 1.Effort-performance relationship 2.Performance-reward relationship 3.Rewards-personal goals relationship.
Expectancy Theory E-P Expectancy What is the probability that I can perform at the required level if I try? P- O Expectancy What is the probability that my good performance will lead to desired outcomes? Valence What value do I place on the potential outcome? Effort Performance Outcomes (e.g. bonus, praise, feelings of accomplishment)
Bottom line All three links must be intact or motivation will not occur. Thus, Individuals must feel that if they try, they can perform And If they perform, they will be rewarded And When they are rewarded, the reward will be something they care about Expectancy Theory
Motivation: From Concepts to Applications
Job Design Theory Characteristics: 1.Skill variety 2.Task identity 3.Task significance 4.Autonomy 5.Feedback Characteristics: 1.Skill variety 2.Task identity 3.Task significance 4.Autonomy 5.Feedback Job Characteristics Model Identifies five job characteristics and their relationship to personal and work outcomes.
Job Characteristics Model –Jobs with skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy, and for which feedback of results is given, directly affect three psychological states of employees: Knowledge of results Meaningfulness of work Personal feelings of responsibility for results –Increases in these psychological states result in increased motivation, performance, and job satisfaction.
Skill Variety The degree to which a job requires a variety of different activities (how may different skills are used in a given day, week, month?). Task Identity The degree to which the job requires completion of a whole and identifiable piece of work (from beginning to end). Task Significance The degree to which the job has a substantial impact on the lives or work of other people.
Autonomy The degree to which the job provides substantial freedom and discretion to the individual in scheduling the work and in determining the procedures to be used in carrying it out. Feedback The degree to which carrying out the work activities required by a job results in the individual obtaining direct and clear information about the effectiveness of his or her performance.
The Job Characteristics Model
Implications for Managers In Order to Motivate Employees –Recognize individual differences. –Use goals and feedback. –Allow employees to participate in decisions that affect them. –Link rewards to performance. –Check the system for equity.