2The term “Motivation” comes from the latin word “movere” which means “to move”. It is a process that starts with a physiological or psychological deficiency or need that activates behavior or a drive.
3It is an inspirational process which impels the members of the team to pull their weight effectively, to give their loyalty to the group ,to carry out properly the tasks that they have accepted and generally to play an effective part in the job that the group has undertaken.
4Intensity: how hard a person tries Direction: toward beneficial goal Key ElementsIntensity: how hard a person triesDirection: toward beneficial goalPersistence: how long a person tries
5What Is Motivation? Direction Intensity Persistence Motivation is the process that accounts for an individual’s intensity, direction, and persistence of effort toward the attainment of a goal. Intensity is concerned with how hard a person tries. This is the element most of us focus on when we discuss the topic of motivation. However, unless effort is channeled in a direction that benefits the organization, high intensity is no guarantee of favorable job-performance outcomes. Quality of effort, therefore, is just as important as intensity of effort. Finally, persistence (how long a person can maintain effort) is important. A motivated person stays with a task long enough to achieve his or her goal.Persistence
6Basic Motivation Process TensiondrivesUnsatisfied needSearch behaviorReduction of tensionSatisfied need
7Theories of Motivation Early Theories of Motivation- Hierarchy of Needs Theory- Two-Factor Theory- Theory X , Theory Y, Theory Z2. Contemporary Theories of Motivation- ERG Theory- McClelland’s Theory of Needs- Cognitive Evaluation Theory- Goal-Setting Theory- Reinforcement Theory- Equity Theory- Expectancy Theory
8Maslow’s Need Hierarchy proposed by Abraham Maslow.Maslow's theory suggests that the most basic level of needs must be met before the individual will strongly desire (or focus motivation upon) the secondary or higher level needs.
9Hierarchy of Needs Theory Higher-Order Needs Needs that are satisfied internally; social, esteem, and self-actualization needs.Lower-Order Needs Needs that are satisfied externally; physiological and safety needs.Need for self-actualization need To realize ones fullest potentialEsteem needs Needs to achieve ,to gain competence ,to get respect from othersBelonging and love needs: need to love and be loved, need to affiliate with others and be acceptedSafety NeedsNeed for safety and securityPhysiological NeedsNeed to satisfies the basic biological needs for food water, oxygen, sleep and elimination of bodily wastes
10Assumptions of Maslow’s Hierarchy Movement up the PyramidIndividuals cannot move to the next higher level until all needs at the current (lower) level are satisfied.Maslow Application:A homeless personwill not be motivated tomeditate!Individuals therefore must move up the hierarchy in order
11NeedsHierarchySelf-Actualization NeedsChallenging projects, opportunities for innovation and creativity,Esteem NeedsImportant projects, recognition, prestigious office locationBelongingness NeedsGood coworkers, peers, superiors customersSafety NeedsJob security; benefits, like life insurance; safety regulationsPhysiological NeedsBasic pay, work space, heat, water, company cafeteria
12Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory Bottom Line: Satisfaction and Dissatisfaction are not Opposite Ends of the Same Thing!Hygiene Factors:SalaryWork ConditionsCompany PoliciesMotivators:AchievementResponsibilityGrowthHygiene Factors---Extrinsic & Related to DissatisfactionMotivation Factors---Intrinsic and Related to Satisfaction
13The Motivation-Hygiene Theory / 2 factor theory Satisfaction DissatisfactionTraditional ViewHerzberg’s ViewSatisfaction No SatisfactionMotivatorsNo dissatisfaction DissatisfactionHygiene Factors
14Managers See Workers As… Theory XManagers See Workers As…Disliking WorkAvoiding ResponsibilityHaving Little AmbitionTheory YManagers See Workers As…Enjoying WorkAccepting ResponsibilitySelf-DirectedDouglas McGregor said that managers hold one of two sets of assumptions about human nature: either Theory X or Theory Y. Seeing people as irresponsible and lazy, managers who follow Theory X assume the following:1. Employees inherently dislike work and will try to avoid it.2. Since employees dislike work, they must be coerced, controlled, or threatened to achieve goals.3. Employees avoid responsibilities and seek formal direction, if possible.4. Most workers place security above all other work-related factors and will display little ambition.Since they see people as responsible and conscientious, managers who follow Theory Y assume the following:1. Employees can view work as being as natural as rest or play.2. When committed to their objectives, people will exercise self-direction and self-control3. The average person can learn to accept, even seek, responsibility.4. Many workers besides managers have innovative decision-making skills.No hard evidence confirms that either set of assumptions is universally true. It is more likely that the assumptions of Theory X or Theory Y may or may not be appropriate, depending on the situation at hand.
15Theory X and Theory Y (Douglas McGregor) Assumptions of Theory X1.Employees inherently dislike work and, whenever possible, will attempt to avoid it;2.Since employees dislike work, they must be coerced, controlled, or threatened with punishment to achieve goals;3.Employees will avoid responsibilities and seek formal direction whenever possible;4.Most workers place security above all other factors associated with work and will display little ambition.
16Theory X and Theory Y (Douglas McGregor) Assumptions of Theory Y1.Employees can view work as being as natural as rest or play;2.People will exercise self-direction and self-control if they are committed to the objectives;3.The average person can learn to accept, even seek, responsibility;4.The ability to make innovative decisions is widely dispersed throughout the population and is not necessarily the sole province of those in management positions.
17Theory Z Employment Long term Decision making With consensus ResponsibilityIndividualEvaluation& promotionslowcontrolimplicitCareer pathModerately specializedconcernHolistic, including family
18Theory of Needs Theory was given by David McClelland. He proposed that an individual’s specific needs are acquired over time and are shaped by one’s life experiences.Most of these needs can be classified as either achievement, affiliation or power.
19David McClelland’s Theory of Needs Need for AchievementThe drive to excel, to achieve in relation to a set of standards, to strive to succeed.Need for AffiliationThe desire for friendly and close personal relationships due to the fact that people are social animals.Bottom Line: Individuals have different levels of needs in each of these areas, and those levels will drive their behaviorNeed for PowerThe need to make others behave in a way that they would not have behaved otherwise. Ability to influence/ manipulate others.
20People with high need for power have great concern for exercising influence and control. They are outspoken and get involved in conversation.People with high need for affiliation derive pleasure from being loved. They enjoy helping others.People with high need for achievement have characteristics like acquiring moderate risks, immediate feedback, preoccupation with tasks, less dedication.
21Equity Theory Equity Theory Individuals compare their job inputs and outcomes with those of others and then respond to eliminate any inequities.Referent Comparisons:Self-insideSelf-outsideOther-insideOther-outside
22Self-inside: An employee’s experiences in a different position inside his or her current organization.Self-outside: An employee’s experiences in a situation or position outside his or her current organization.Other-inside: Another individual or group of individuals inside the employee’s organization.Other-outside: Another individual or group of individuals outside the employee’s organization.
23This theory is based on two assumptions about human behaviour. Individuals make contributions (inputs) for which they expect certain outcomes (rewards). Inputs include such things as the person’s past training and experience, special knowledge, personal characteristics etc. Outcomes include pay recognition, promotion, prestige, fringe benefits etc.Individuals decide whether or not a particular exchange is satisfactory, by comparing their inputs and outcomes to those of others in the form of a ratio. Equity exists when an individual concludes that his/her own outcome/input ratio is equal to that of others.
24Choices for dealing with inequity: Change inputsChange outcomes (increase output)Distort/change perceptions of selfDistort/change perceptions of othersChoose a different referent personLeave the field (quit the job)
25Expectancy TheoryVictor Vroom’s Expectancy Theory argues that an employee will be motivated to exert a high level of effort when he or she believes that effort will lead to a good performance appraisal;that a good appraisal will lead to organizational rewards such as bonus, a salary increase, or a promotion;and that the rewards will satisfy the employee’s personal goals.
26The theory, therefore, focuses on three relationships: Effort-performance relationshipPerformance-reward relationshipRewards-personal goals relationship.
28Expectancy Theory E-P Expectancy What is the probability that I can perform at the required level if I try?P- O Expectancy What is the probability that my good performance will lead to desired outcomes?ValenceWhat value do I place on the potential outcome?Outcomes (e.g. bonus, praise, feelings of accomplishment)EffortPerformance
29Expectancy Theory Bottom line All three links must be intact or motivation will not occur.Thus,Individuals must feel that if they try, they can performAndIf they perform, they will be rewardedWhen they are rewarded, the reward will be something they care about
31Job Design Theory Job Characteristics Model Identifies five job characteristics and their relationship to personal and work outcomes.Characteristics:Skill varietyTask identityTask significanceAutonomyFeedback
32Job Characteristics Model Jobs with skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy, and for which feedback of results is given, directly affect three psychological states of employees:Knowledge of resultsMeaningfulness of workPersonal feelings of responsibility for resultsIncreases in these psychological states result in increased motivation, performance, and job satisfaction.
33Skill VarietyThe degree to which a job requires a variety of different activities (how may different skills are used in a given day, week, month?).Task IdentityThe degree to which the job requires completion of a whole and identifiable piece of work (from beginning to end).Task SignificanceThe degree to which the job has a substantial impact on the lives or work of other people.
34AutonomyThe degree to which the job provides substantial freedom and discretion to the individual in scheduling the work and in determining the procedures to be used in carrying it out.FeedbackThe degree to which carrying out the work activities required by a job results in the individual obtaining direct and clear information about the effectiveness of his or her performance.
36Implications for Managers In Order to Motivate EmployeesRecognize individual differences.Use goals and feedback.Allow employees to participate in decisions that affect them.Link rewards to performance.Check the system for equity.