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Training and Pruning Basics Objectives and Tools.

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Presentation on theme: "Training and Pruning Basics Objectives and Tools."— Presentation transcript:

1 Training and Pruning Basics Objectives and Tools

2 HORT Temperate Fruit and Nut Production Strong Tree Framework Balanced Renewal Facilitate Management Harvest Sunlight Efficiently Maintain Productivity

3 HORT Temperate Fruit and Nut Production What happens if you do not prune? §Faster growth §Earlier fruiting §Less light penetration §Poor spray coverage §More difficult to manage

4 HORT Temperate Fruit and Nut Production Objectives of training §A. Establish a strong tree framework §B. Facilitate management of tree and crop §C. Harvest sunlight efficiently §D. Maintain productivity l by renewing fruiting wood Balanced Renewal

5 HORT Temperate Fruit and Nut Production A. Establish a Strong Tree Framework §Upright vertical trunk §Well distributed scaffolds §Wide crotch angles Structural Wood

6 HORT Temperate Fruit and Nut Production Establish a Strong Tree Framework Vertical trunk Well Distributed Scaffolds

7 HORT Temperate Fruit and Nut Production Establish a Strong Tree Framework §Wide branch angles are stronger §Narrow angles are weak and increase shading inside canopy

8 HORT Temperate Fruit and Nut Production A Strong Tree Framework: §Major objective of the first three years §Must last the lifetime of the tree §Structural support for fruit crop §Should not be crowded

9 HORT Temperate Fruit and Nut Production B. Facilitate Management of the Tree and Crop §Height of primary scaffolds §Distribute scaffolds well §Tree uniformity §Tree size

10 HORT Temperate Fruit and Nut Production 1. Height of Primary Scaffolds Facilitate Management: 1. Height of Primary Scaffolds §Access to tree base l Irrigation, herbicides, fertilizers §Allow air movement to minimize disease pressure

11 HORT Temperate Fruit and Nut Production 2. Distribute Scaffolds Well Facilitate Management: 2. Distribute Scaffolds Well §Easy entry to tree §Thinning, pruning, harvesting §Good pesticide coverage

12 HORT Temperate Fruit and Nut Production 3. Tree Uniformity Facilitate Management: 3. Tree Uniformity §Easier to train employees §Mechanization possible

13 HORT Temperate Fruit and Nut Production 4. Tree Size Facilitate Management: 4. Tree Size §Small trees are easier to work §No ladders needed §Easy to reach all parts of tree §Better spray penetration

14 HORT Temperate Fruit and Nut Production Facilitate Management of the Tree and Crop §Optimize height of primary scaffolds l Allow space at tree base §Distribute scaffolds well l Do not over crowd scaffolds §Tree uniformity §Limit tree size with summer and winter pruning

15 HORT Temperate Fruit and Nut Production C. Harvest Sunlight Efficiently  Maximize surface area of orchard covered by canopy  Limit canopy depth

16 HORT Temperate Fruit and Nut Production 1. Maximize surface area of orchard covered by canopy Harvest Sunlight Efficiently: 1. Maximize surface area of orchard covered by canopy §Most rapid in high density plantings

17 HORT Temperate Fruit and Nut Production 2. Limit Canopy Depth Harvest Sunlight Efficiently: 2. Limit Canopy Depth 50% 30% Light Intensity Decreases Within the Tree Canopy

18 HORT Temperate Fruit and Nut Production 2. Limit Canopy Depth Harvest Sunlight Efficiently: 2. Limit Canopy Depth Photosynthesis Decreases at Lower Light Levels

19 HORT Temperate Fruit and Nut Production Poor Light Intensity Leads to Harvest Sunlight Efficiently: Poor Light Intensity Leads to §Poor fruit color §Poor fruit distribution l Less fruit bud development §Poor fruit size §Poor fruit flavor

20 HORT Temperate Fruit and Nut Production Poor Light Intensity Leads to Harvest Sunlight Efficiently: Poor Light Intensity Leads to §Poor fruit color

21 HORT Temperate Fruit and Nut Production Light Intensity Affects: Harvest Sunlight Efficiently: Light Intensity Affects: Fruit Color and Size

22 HORT Temperate Fruit and Nut Production Light Intensity Affects: Harvest Sunlight Efficiently: Light Intensity Affects: Fruit Color and Size

23 HORT Temperate Fruit and Nut Production Light Intensity and Fruit Size Harvest Sunlight Efficiently: Light Intensity and Fruit Size % Light PenetrationFruit size (grams)

24 HORT Temperate Fruit and Nut Production Light Intensity and Fruit Distribution Harvest Sunlight Efficiently: Light Intensity and Fruit Distribution % Light Penetration% Fruit Distribution

25 HORT Temperate Fruit and Nut Production Light Intensity and Fruit Flavor Harvest Sunlight Efficiently: Light Intensity and Fruit Flavor % Light Penetration % Soluble Solids

26 HORT Temperate Fruit and Nut Production Harvest Sunlight Efficiently §Maximize Orchard Floor Covered with Canopy §Limit canopy depth to 3 feet l Expose all parts of the canopy with at least 50% sunlight

27 HORT Temperate Fruit and Nut Production D. Maintain Productivity D. Maintain Productivity Sustain maximum bearing area for maximal time Balanced Renewal

28 HORT Temperate Fruit and Nut Production D. Maintain Productivity §Maintain light distribution in canopy §Remove unproductive wood §Maintain good vegetative:fruit balance

29 HORT Temperate Fruit and Nut Production Maintain light distribution in canopy Maintain Productivity: Maintain light distribution in canopy §Only sun-exposed areas produce quality fruit §Limit canopy depth to 3’ §Control tree size l Unless control tree size the fruit moves up every year l Lower part of tree will be shaded

30 HORT Temperate Fruit and Nut Production Remove Unproductive Wood Maintain Productivity: Remove Unproductive Wood §Fruiting wood which hangs down §Fruiting wood which is shaded §Water sprouts and root suckers §Diseased or damaged wood §Weak or thin wood

31 HORT Temperate Fruit and Nut Production Remove Unproductive Wood Maintain Productivity: Remove Unproductive Wood l Remove weak or thin wood

32 HORT Temperate Fruit and Nut Production Remove Unproductive Wood Maintain Productivity: Remove Unproductive Wood l Remove weak or thin wood

33 HORT Temperate Fruit and Nut Production Maintain good vegetative:fruit balance Maintain Productivity: Maintain good vegetative:fruit balance l Thin out excessively vigorous vegetative growth during summer l Allows light into center of tree

34 HORT Temperate Fruit and Nut Production Maintain good vegetative:fruit balance Maintain Productivity: Maintain good vegetative:fruit balance §Remove excessive fruiting wood §In peaches - remove 40-60% of new fruiting wood each year

35 HORT Temperate Fruit and Nut Production How should you train your trees? Conclusions: How should you train your trees? §Many approaches work §Open center is most common for peaches §Central leader is most common for pome fruit §Find a program that works and stick to it

36 HORT Temperate Fruit and Nut Production How should you train your trees? Conclusions: How should you train your trees? §Keep in mind the four objectives [Establish a strong tree framework [Facilitate management of tree and crop [Harvest sunlight efficiently [Maintain productivity by balanced renewal

37 What Tools Are Used in Tree Training?

38 HORT Temperate Fruit and Nut Production Tools used in Tree Training §Manipulation of apical dominance  Controlled by the plant hormone auxin  Produced by actively growing shoots  Moves down the branch with gravity

39 HORT Temperate Fruit and Nut Production Effects of auxin 4Inhibits lateral bud break 4Inhibits lateral shoot growth 4Affects branch angle

40 HORT Temperate Fruit and Nut Production Pruning Remove the Source of Auxin §Heading Cut 4Remove part of the branch 4Stimulate bud break near cut 4Stimulate localized branching

41 HORT Temperate Fruit and Nut Production Hedging = Heading Cuts §Initially it opens up the canopy §Since heading cuts §Stimulate lateral bud break §Vigorous vegetative growth creates a dense canopy

42 HORT Temperate Fruit and Nut Production Pruning Remove the Source of Auxin §Thinning cut 4Remove branch at point of origin 4Least invigorating cut 4Promote light penetration into canopy 4Maintenance pruning

43 HORT Temperate Fruit and Nut Production Bend Branch Towards Horizontal §Decreases amount of auxin moving from tip Increase lateral branching Decrease terminal growth Bend to a 45 to 60 degree angle

44 HORT Temperate Fruit and Nut Production Bend Branch Towards Horizontal §Decreases amount of auxin moving from tip Increase lateral branching Buds at highest point break Decrease terminal growth Bend below the horizontal

45 HORT Temperate Fruit and Nut Production Timing of pruning §Dormant pruning l Most common approach §Summer pruning l Works well in combination with dormant pruning l Open up the tree to allow light into center

46 HORT Temperate Fruit and Nut Production Pruning Response Varies with Tree §Different varieties/crops grow differently l Spur types in apples §Vigor level of the tree l Age of the tree l Rootstock l Fertility/irrigation/soil constraints §Small fruited vs. large fruited crops

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