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Mercy Olmstead, Ph.D. Stonefruit Extension Specialist TRAINING SYSTEMS FOR PEACHES AND NECTARINES.

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Presentation on theme: "Mercy Olmstead, Ph.D. Stonefruit Extension Specialist TRAINING SYSTEMS FOR PEACHES AND NECTARINES."— Presentation transcript:

1 Mercy Olmstead, Ph.D. Stonefruit Extension Specialist TRAINING SYSTEMS FOR PEACHES AND NECTARINES

2  Training system decisions must start before planting  Know what the orchard will look like when mature  Follow a plan  Traditional vs. New Systems  Open Vase  Perpendicular-V - focus on early fruit production and high yield  SCRI – Innovative Technologies for Thinning Fruit  Testing thinning equipment in both systems  Uniform “plane” of fruiting area has been most successful ORCHARD TRAINING SYSTEMS

3  Traditional System  In many other locations – can take 6-8 years for trees to fill in spaces  Florida = ideal growing conditions with 7-8 feet of growth per year  Trees can grow together in close spacings within one year  Spacing:  15 x 20 = 145 trees  10 x 20 = 218 trees  Trees trained to 3-4 scaffolds  Cover each quadrant to optimize light interception  Tree height set at 8 feet  Optimize activities without use of ladders OPEN VASE TRAINING SYSTEM

4  Pruning young trees: OPEN VASE Year 1Year 2

5  Pruning Techniques  Dormant Pruning  Remove vigorous shoots (watersprouts)  Shape tree  Choose fruiting wood  Thin branches  Summer Pruning  Reduce height of tree to 8 feet  Remove dead shoots  Remove hanging shoots close to ground  Increase light penetration to middle of tree  Be careful of sunburn!  Light is very important to form flower buds for next year OPEN VASE

6  System developed in California  Spacing:  6’ x 18’ or 20’, depending on previous system  403 trees/ac  Trees are trained to two main scaffolds  degrees apart between scaffolds  If angle is too vertical (<20° from vertical), scaffolds will be weak  If angle is too horizontal (>45° from vertical), scaffolds are sunburn- prone  Tree height set at 8 feet  Optimize activities from ground PERPENDICULAR-V

7  Pruning young trees: PERPENDICULAR-V Year 1

8 PERPENDICULAR-V Year 2 Year 3+

9  Pruning Techniques  Dormant Pruning  Remove vigorous shoots (watersprouts)  Shape tree  Choose fruiting wood as close to scaffolds as possible  Thin branches  Summer Pruning  Reduce height of tree to 8 feet  Remove dead shoots  Increase light penetration to fruiting wood  Thin shoots  Be careful of sunburn – leave a few upright shoots in middle  May have to do 2 or 3x with this system  Excessive vigor in FL PERPENDICULAR-V

10  Decision Tools – Which system is right for your orchard?  Spacing and cost considerations  145 Trees/Ac vs. 403 Trees/Ac.  15’ x 20’ vs 8’ x 20’  Increased costs with tighter spacing  Costs are fixed at $11.00/tree ORCHARD TRAINING SYSTEMS

11  Labor considerations  Higher density = higher labor costs  Thinning more costly  Perpendicular-V easy to establish and prune  May have to summer prune multiple times to maintain system ORCHARD TRAINING SYSTEMS

12  Training considerations  Open vase system = longer time per tree to prune, thin, etc.  Perpendicular-V = uniform system, shorter time required per tree/activity  Tree loss due to disease, insects, etc.  In higher density system, loss of yield due to resets is minimal  Returns to grower  Overall yield per acre is higher with perpendicular-V  What does your market need?  Delivery in bulk vs. spread throughout season ORCHARD TRAINING SYSTEMS

13  Byron, GA  Redglobe/Guardian  Trees were in 4 th leaf (2002)  Gross Income  Open Vase  lbs x 145 trees/ac x $2.00/lb = $17,927/ac  Perpendicular-V  lbx x 403 trees/ac x $2.00/lb = $24,929/ac  **Subtract out other costs to get net income TRAINING SYSTEM CASE STUDY $24,929/ac gross income

14  Start small  Open Vase has been successful in FL  Prospective growers should minimize investment costs  Trials for established growers  High density system (Perpendicular-V)  Established stream of income before diving in  Other considerations  Cost  Spacing (available land?)  Skilled labor force  Training  Tree replacement and yield loss WHICH IS RIGHT FOR ME?

15 QUESTIONS? Gulfking, May 2010

16 IBA ROOTING EXPERIMENT

17  IBA Concentrations:  0, 1000, 2000, 4000 ppm  Cutting collection  2009  August 3 (softwood)  August 10 (softwood)  August 17 (semi – hardwood)  2010  January 20 (hardwood)  Late June  July (2-3 times)  August (2-3 times  2011  January  Compare timings with IBA concentration to determine successful combination OPTIMIZING ROOTING CONDITIONS FOR CUTTINGS

18 ROOTING SUCCESS Sharpe Rootstock (clonal plum) Flordaguard Rootstock


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