TOPPING SIDE LATERAL CROSS OVER PARALLEL BRANCHES SPUR GRAFT UNION SUCKERS DEAD OR BROKEN LEADER GROWTH BUD BUD DIRECTIONAL
HARD VS LIGHT Prune weak growth hard and strong growth light. Hard pruning lessens the amount of flower buds being served by tree and allows for better production from the remaining bugs. BALANCE Younger wood produces finer fruit Apple & pear on 2 year wood Sour cherry, peach & nectarine on previous year Plum, sweet cherry & apricot on 2 year and older FRUITING HABIT Heavy crops produce small unsatisfactory fruits / biennial bearing Blossom thinning 10 days after blossom pinch out 9 of every 10 blossoms Fruit thinning ROOT Best done on young trees in winter. Lift, prune and replant. Large trees done over 2 year span. Stake after pruning.
CANKER - Generally affects apples. Heavily cankered trees should be discarded. Cut tree below infected area where healthy tissue resumes. Disinfect tools. CROWDED OR CROSSING - Touching branches lead to bark/insect damage. Overcrowding creates stagnant air, poor circulation. BROKEN – Cut branches or exposed bark are susceptible to water penetration. TRAINED FORMS - Reduce growth and thin congested spurs. Try to regain form, if not feasible, replace tree. NEVER TAKE OFF MORE THAN ¼ OF TREE.
o APPLE o PEACH o PEAR o QUINCE o PLUM o CHERRY o NECTARINE o APRICOT o MULBERRY o FIGS o PERSIMMON
o Self fertile. o Spur bearers – fruit on 3 year wood or older. o Prune in late winter or early spring. o SPUR PRUNING - Shorten laterals to increase fruiting side shoots. Continual spur pruning eventually leads to congestion. Pushes production closer to main branches. o SPUR THINNING – Pruning out spurs that have become congested or overcrowded. o TIP PRUNING – Cut older shoots back to 1 or 2 buds. Remove shoots after 2 years of fruiting.
SUMMER PRUNING – Formally trained trees. Cordons, espalier and fan tree forms. Used to restrict growth and encourage fruiting bud formation. AKA – The Lorette System - Where all shoots, 6-9 inches are pruned to 2 inch length. Creating a woody base. Pruning is continued throughout summer on shoots stimulated from 1 st round of pruning. Also used to discourage secondary growth.
o Fruit on shoots from previous year. o Late winter or early spring. Silver leaf disease. o Remove fruited growth and promote new shoots. o Prune to growth bud, not flower bud. o Self fertile.
Like warm, sheltered growth areas. Propagated by grafting. Fruit on 2 year wood or older. Late winter or early spring. Winter, spur thinning or large branch removal. Spring, blossom or fruit thinning. Regular thinning to prevent overcrowding. Self fertile.
o Grown as large bush o Frequent suckers o Can be shaped into fan or palmette o Fruits on spurs and tips of 1 year shoots o Self fertile o Prune in winter
o Fruit at base of year old wood and along 2 year and older stems. o Prone to disease and infections like silver leaf disease and cankers. o Prune at bud break. Dead wood in late summer or Autumn. o Use care to not prune back too much young growth. o Propagated by grafting.
Fruit on older wood and base of previous years growth. Pruning in winter makes tree susceptible to silver leaf disease. Prune for training at bud burst in spring for new trees and summer for established trees. Prune out diseased, dying or dead wood immediately. Remove shoots with narrow forks or V angles. Fruit thinning rarely needed.
Easier to grow in colder climates. Fruits only on shoots from previous year. Pruning in winter makes tree susceptible to silver leaf disease. Prune at bud burst to train new tree or summer for established. More cold tolerant.
o Fruit borne on shoots from previous year o Prune in late winter to early spring o Best done as buds are bursting o Remove growth and encourage new shoots o Vulnerable to silver leaf disease o Prune when in blossom to thin out fruit. o Self fertile.
o Fruits on 2 year wood or older. o Prune as buds are bursting in spring. o Never prune in winter, risk of infection is greatest. o Are easily affected by late frost. Do not plant on warm, south facing walls. o Sparse crops will increase growth, control by pruning.
o Prune from early to mid winter o Trees may bleed when pruned o Remove dead wood in summer o Maintain central leader o Summer prune new shoots to 5 leaves to keep tree compact o Need cold winters and hot summers to fruit well
o Long, hot summer for good fruit production. o Grown in bush form in Boise, with yearly dieback. o Three stage fruiting – overwinter, spring and summer. o Prune to encourage embryo figs in leaf axils to develop. o Prune in early spring after frost danger has passed. o Propagated from cuttings.
o Good fruit production requires cold winters and chilling period with long hot summer. o Fruit on current seasons growth. o Does not tolerate heavy pruning. o Thin inner growth in winter to promote air circulation. o Remove winter damage in summer. o Remove weak branches and brittle wood. o Remove weak crotches. o Propagated from grafting.