5 Shading by a single leaf Lowers light intensity to just 10% of leaves in full sunlight Reduces photosynthesis to 28% of leaves in full sunlight Limits the export of carbohydrates to fruits and spurs
11 Training and Pruning Pruning is a part of the training program, with some required to: 1) Eliminate potential structural problems. 2) Remove superfluous branches. 3) Direct the growth of selected structural units.
12 Vertical Growth Very vegetatively vigorous Not fruitful
30 Types of wood removed during pruning Suckers–arise from roots Water sprouts –strong upright growth in tree interior Spur –short lateral branch Leader –the primary vertical axis of tree Scaffold –major lateral branch
37 Removal of Apical Dominance Heading Heading removes the growing point or terminal bud. This results in severe changes in the hormonal balance of the shoot. Downward flow of inhibitors Growing points are released
46 Pruning Procedure Remove water sprouts and suckers Remove broken and damaged branches Remove pendant branches Remove weaker of crossing branches Remove old complex spurs Evaluate often (step back)
47 Evaluation Can you see through the tree? Are there dense masses of limbs? Are there “windows” for light?
48 Staking Prevents wind whipping Supports graft union Helps maintain central leader Critical for dwarf trees Place the stake about 5 cm. from the tree, fasten the tree to the stake, use non- metallic fasteners
49 Tree Support Influences Growth and Fruiting Reduced movement Less secondary trunk thickening. Fewer carbohydrates used in wood development. More available for fruit production.
50 Staking Modifies Tree Growth Un-staked trees require more pruning. Shoot Growth - Fruiting Movement causes minute damage to cells and trunk tissue. Stress Ethylene Lateral Cell Growth