Presentation on theme: "1 Tree Fruit Production. 2 TRAINING To cause to grow in a desired form or fashion."— Presentation transcript:
1 Tree Fruit Production
2 TRAINING To cause to grow in a desired form or fashion
3 PRUNING Removing unwanted wood
4 Pruning is really light management
5 Shading by a single leaf Lowers light intensity to just 10% of leaves in full sunlight Reduces photosynthesis to 28% of leaves in full sunlight Limits the export of carbohydrates to fruits and spurs
7 The Shade a Tree Casts on Itself is its own Worst Enemy
8 60 to 100% Full Sun 33% leaf area 30 to 60% Full Sun 38% leaf area 0 to 30 % Full Sun 29% leaf area
11 Training and Pruning Pruning is a part of the training program, with some required to: 1) Eliminate potential structural problems. 2) Remove superfluous branches. 3) Direct the growth of selected structural units.
12 Vertical Growth Very vegetatively vigorous Not fruitful
14 Horizontal growth Not vegetatively vigorous Very fruitful
16 Response to Branch Angle Vertical Vigorous terminal growth. Minimal flower production. Horizontal Less growth. Near base. Greatest flower production.
17 Training Techniques Spreading Bending Trellising Tying All position limbs
30 Types of wood removed during pruning Suckers–arise from roots Water sprouts –strong upright growth in tree interior Spur –short lateral branch Leader –the primary vertical axis of tree Scaffold –major lateral branch
37 Removal of Apical Dominance Heading Heading removes the growing point or terminal bud. This results in severe changes in the hormonal balance of the shoot. Downward flow of inhibitors Growing points are released
38 Dormant Unpruned Heading cut
39 Thinning cut
41 Dutch Cut
42 Bench Cut
43 Pruning Tools Use tools made for pruning Keep them clean and sharp Use only for pruning
44 When to prune? Dormant season Late February to late April Not before January
46 Pruning Procedure Remove water sprouts and suckers Remove broken and damaged branches Remove pendant branches Remove weaker of crossing branches Remove old complex spurs Evaluate often (step back)
47 Evaluation Can you see through the tree? Are there dense masses of limbs? Are there “windows” for light?
48 Staking Prevents wind whipping Supports graft union Helps maintain central leader Critical for dwarf trees Place the stake about 5 cm. from the tree, fasten the tree to the stake, use non- metallic fasteners
49 Tree Support Influences Growth and Fruiting Reduced movement Less secondary trunk thickening. Fewer carbohydrates used in wood development. More available for fruit production.
50 Staking Modifies Tree Growth Un-staked trees require more pruning. Shoot Growth - Fruiting Movement causes minute damage to cells and trunk tissue. Stress Ethylene Lateral Cell Growth