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Chapter 6.  The Eastern Roman Empire became known as the Byzantine Empire.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 6.  The Eastern Roman Empire became known as the Byzantine Empire."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 6

2  The Eastern Roman Empire became known as the Byzantine Empire.

3  Constantine, in 330 AD, moved the capital of the Roman Empire to Asia Minor, now Turkey. He called the capital “New Rome,” but it became known as Constantinople.

4  Constantinople  Was a political and religious center  Became the permanent capital of the Eastern Roman empire  Was one of the five major patriarchates of the Christian church.  Withstood the attacks that the western empire could not.  Became known as The “queen of the Mediterranean”

5  The Byzantine Empire took its name from the ancient Greek city of Byzantium.

6  The Byzantine Empire was Roman in several ways:  Same customs and traditions  Roman political and legal structures  But has much Hellenistic influence as well  More Greek than Roman  More Asiatic than European

7  Justinian was a famous Byzantine emperor.  Ruled AD  Counseled by his wife Theodora  Fought the “barbarians” to retain control of western lands.

8  The Justinian Code, a systematic arrangement of laws that clarified Roman legal principles, preserved the heritage of the Roman legal system.

9  Justinian wanted to restore the grandeur of Rome.  He built churches, public buildings, aqueducts, & roads.  He patronized (supported) Byzantine art.

10  The Hagia Sophia was a magnificent example of Byzantine architecture and still stands today in Istanbul (formerly Constantinople).

11  Neglected defense of the eastern and northern borders.  Too much spending on military and building left the empire in financial trouble

12  Constantinople was a “Christian city.”  Constantinople’s patriarch held the highest position in the eastern Roman empire.

13  Rivalry developed between eastern & western churches.  The pope from Rome tried to assume authority over churches in Italy that the Patriarch of Constantinople had been in charge of.  The Patriarch refused to relinquish control.

14  Then the Pope of Rome and the Patriarch of Constantinople excommunicated each other.  That is, they excluded each other from the fellowship of the church.

15  They also differed on  When to celebrate Easter  Whether priests should marry  Whether the church should use icons, painted images of Christ and the saints.

16  The Roman church was influenced by the pagan practices of ancient Rome and the Germanic tribes.  The Eastern church was influenced by Greek and Oriental ideas.  Both adopted non-biblical elements.

17  The church in the East became the state church.  The political ruler and the religious leader were the same person.

18  Constantinople withstood the attacks because of  Its defensible location  Its strong fortifications  Greek fire! But they still lost much of the empire: Syria, Palestine, Egypt, North Africa to the Muslims.

19  See map page 129.

20  From , the Byzantine empire made a comeback.  Under Basil II, known as the Bulgar Slayer, ( ) the empire had its most successes.

21  Commercial rivals – Venice, Italy  Seljuk Turks – took Asia Minor in the Battle of Manzikert  Emperor asked Christians in the west for help.  The result was a series of Crusades to free the east and the Holy Land in Palestine from Muslim rule.

22  In 1204, the Christian army from the west invaded Constantinople, capturing and looting the city.  Apparently, Venetian merchants had sent the “Crusaders” to Constantinople to destroy their commercial rival.  Neither their cause nor their conduct was holy!

23  The Byzantine empire never recovered fully from that attack.  It went on for 200 years, severely weakened.  Then in 1453, the Muslim Ottoman Turks, sacked the city and killed the last Byzantine emperor.

24  Page 132. Read The Fall of Constantinople, May 30, 1453.

25  If Constantinople was a Christian city, why did God let it fall to the Muslims?

26  The Muslims turned the Hagia Sophia into a mosque and added Minarets. They covered the beautiful frescos because their religion prohibits picturing human figures.  In 1935, the Turkish government turned the Hagia Sophia into a museum.

27  The Byzantine Empire had acted as a shield for the west against the spread of Islam.  The Byzantine Empire helped preserve and transmit the classical heritage of Greece and Rome.

28  Some people groups copied the governmental system of the Byzantines, which had come from ancient Rome.  Many pagan people of Eastern Europe adopted Orthodox Christianity and Byzantine culture.  Cyril & Methodius took the gospel and a written language system to the Slavic people of Russia and southeastern Europe.

29  Byzantine art was beautiful and glorified God.  They used mosaics to decorate and tell stories.  The churches were beautiful examples of Byzantine architecture, copied by many cultures.  Domed structures, such as the Hagia Sophia.

30  Russia spans 2 continents and is ethnically diverse.  The most populous group is the Slavs.  West Slavs – Poles & Czechs – Danube Region  Yugo-Slavs – South Slavs – Balkan area  East Slavs – ancestors of the Russians – between the Baltic Sea and the Black Sea

31  Varangians – Swedish Norsemen who plundered then settled the inland waterways between the Baltic Sea and the Black Sea.  Rurik, a Varangian warrior, took control of Novgorod in 862, marking the beginning of Russian history.

32  Russia was strongly influenced by the Byzantine culture.  Vladimir I adopted Byzantine Christianity in 988.  Art ▪ Russian icons ▪ Onion-shaped dome  Slavic alphabet ▪ Greek writings into Slavic ▪ Native Russian literature ▪ Russian icons

33  Yaroslav “the Wise” ( ) – sponsored the earliest Russian code of laws, which combined Slavic tribal law and Byzantine law.

34  The Tartars, fierce Mongolian warriors from central Asia, swept into Russia, destroyed the city of Kiev, and ruled Russia until the late 15 th Century.

35  Islam started in Arabia with a man named Muhammad.  He was attracted to the monotheism of the Christians and Jews as opposed to the polytheism of the Arabs.

36  Muhammad lived from  His homeland is Mecca in Arabia.  When he was 40 years old, he began to have visions that the angel Gabriel was speaking to him. (p. 137)

37  At first only his friends and family believed him.  He was ridiculed by the people of Mecca who were pagans who worshipped at the Kaaba, a sacred shrine housing hundreds of pagan idols.  Thousands of people made “pilgrimages” to this shrine every year, making trade very profitable.

38  The traders feared that this monotheistic religion of Muhammad would spread and people would stop their pilgrimages, causing business to suffer.  Therefore they persecuted him and his followers.

39  Muhammad and his followers fled to Medina to escape persecution.  This move is called the Hegira (or flight) and marks YEAR 1 of the Muslim calendar.

40

41  In Medina, Muhammad preached his message and gained many followers.  The people of Medina made him their religious, political, and military leader.  Muhammad led his Muslim armies to force people to convert to Islam or die.

42  Muhammad returned to his home city, Mecca, and conquered it.  He then made Mecca the holy city of his new religion.

43  Allah is the Arabic name for God.  Islam is the name of the religion and means “submission” for submission to Allah.  Muslims, “submitters to Allah,” are the followers of Islam.  Koran/Q’uran is the sacred book of the Muslims.

44  Muslims believe in one god and that Muhammad is the most important and last prophet.  See page 138 for quotes from Koran.  Muslims believe that Ishmael was the son of the promise to Abraham.  They believe that Ishmael was the son whom God asked Abraham to sacrifice, but then provided the lamb instead.

45  Muslims believe that Jesus was also a prophet of Allah, but deny his deity.  They believe Jesus was a good moral teacher.  Muslims reject the Trinity. (p. 139 quote)

46  What is a pillar?  1. an upright shaft or structure, of stone, brick, or other material, relatively slender in proportion to its height, and of any shape in section, used as a building support, or standing alone, as for a monument: Gothic pillars; a pillar to commemorate Columbus.  2. a natural formation resembling such a construction: a pillar of rock; a pillar of smoke.  3. any upright, supporting part; post: the pillar of a table.  4. a person who is a chief supporter of a society, state, institution, etc.: a pillar of the community.

47  1. Shahadah – No god but Allah, Mohammad is prophet  2. Salat – Pray 5 times a day facing Mecca  3. Zakat – Give to the poor  4. Sawm – fast from sunrise to sunset during Ramadan  5. Hajj – make at least 1 pilgrimage to Mecca in one’s lifetime.

48  What are they? (p ) Blue Mosque in Istanbul

49  Muhammad united Arabia under Islam.  Successors were “Caliphs,” close friends and relatives of Muhammad.  They exercised spiritual, political, & military authority.

50  Abu Bakr – 1 st Caliph ( )  Umar – 2 nd Caliph ( )  Uthman – 3 rd Caliph ( )  Ali – 4 th Caliph ( )  They expanded Islam by conquering Palestine, Syria, Egypt, Iraq, and Persia.

51  1. Their desire for fertile land  2. The weakness of the Byzantine & Persian Empires (7 th Century AD)  3. Islamic unity.  Jihad – holy war defending the honor of Islam

52  At first Arabs dominated Islam and the Islamic empire, but they treated their non- Arab converts poorly.  The non-Arabs helped overthrow the Umayyad Caliphate and installed the Abbasid Caliphate, which granted better treatment to non-Arab Muslims.

53  The Abbasid Caliphate marked the peak of the Muslim Empire.  They controlled more territory than Ancient Rome had.  Capital was moved to Baghdad, which became a great commercial center.

54  The Seljuk Turks were a Sunni Muslim dynasty who expanded the Muslim empire into Asia Minor, taking territory away from the Byzantine Empire.  This expansion into Christendom led the Christians of western Europe to be alarmed enough to launch Crusades to take back the Holy Land from the Muslims.

55  The Muslims embraced the cultures of the peoples they conquered.  Trade Routes to China, India, East Africa  Products: paper, silk, muslin, linen, damask, woven carpets, tooled leather, filigree jewelry, engraved silver & gold, knives & swords, dates, oranges, lemons, apricots, peaches, melons.

56

57  Translated writings of Greeks, Persians, and Indians into Arabic. (Examples: Aristotle, Plato, Galen, Hippocrates, Archimedes, Euclid, Ptolemy, et al.)

58  al Razi & ibn Sina: small pox, tuberculosis  Surgeries  Hospitals  Cleanliness & sanitation

59  Omar Khayyam – Rubaiyat, poem page 143

60  Borrowed from Indians and Greeks.  Arabic numerals  Decimal system  Concept of zero  Geometry - Greek  Trigonometry - Greek  Algebra

61  Muhammad forbid representation of humans and animals.  Muslim artists used abstract designs.  Caligraphy  Manuscript illumination  Mosques: domes, minarets

62 caligraphy Arabic mural Ancient Arabic art


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