2The Eastern Roman Empire became known as the Byzantine Empire.
3Constantine, in 330 AD, moved the capital of the Roman Empire to Asia Minor, now Turkey. He called the capital “New Rome,” but it became known as Constantinople.
4Constantinople Was a political and religious center Became the permanent capital of the Eastern Roman empireWas one of the five major patriarchates of the Christian church.Withstood the attacks that the western empire could not.Became known as The “queen of the Mediterranean”
5The Byzantine Empire took its name from the ancient Greek city of Byzantium.
6The Byzantine Empire was Roman in several ways: Same customs and traditionsRoman political and legal structuresBut has much Hellenistic influence as wellMore Greek than RomanMore Asiatic than European
7The Reign of Justinian Justinian was a famous Byzantine emperor. Ruled ADCounseled by his wife TheodoraFought the “barbarians” to retain control of western lands.
8The Reign of JustinianThe Justinian Code, a systematic arrangement of laws that clarified Roman legal principles, preserved the heritage of the Roman legal system.
9The Reign of JustinianJustinian wanted to restore the grandeur of Rome.He built churches, public buildings, aqueducts, & roads.He patronized (supported) Byzantine art.
10Hagia SophiaThe Hagia Sophia was a magnificent example of Byzantine architecture and still stands today in Istanbul (formerly Constantinople).
11Problems left by Justinian Neglected defense of the eastern and northern borders.Too much spending on military and building left the empire in financial trouble
12Eastern & Western Churches Separate Constantinople was a “Christian city.”Constantinople’s patriarch held the highest position in the eastern Roman empire.
13Eastern & Western Churches Separate Rivalry developed between eastern & western churches.The pope from Rome tried to assume authority over churches in Italy that the Patriarch of Constantinople had been in charge of.The Patriarch refused to relinquish control.
14Eastern & Western Churches Separate Then the Pope of Rome and the Patriarch of Constantinople excommunicated each other.That is, they excluded each other from the fellowship of the church.
15Eastern & Western Churches Separate They also differed onWhen to celebrate EasterWhether priests should marryWhether the church should use icons, painted images of Christ and the saints.
16Eastern & Western Churches Separate The Roman church was influenced by the pagan practices of ancient Rome and the Germanic tribes.The Eastern church was influenced by Greek and Oriental ideas.Both adopted non-biblical elements.
17Eastern & Western Churches Separate The church in the East became the state church.The political ruler and the religious leader were the same person.
18Empire Under Siege Constantinople withstood the attacks because of Its defensible locationIts strong fortificationsGreek fire!But they still lost much of the empire: Syria, Palestine, Egypt, North Africa to the Muslims.
20Empire Under SiegeFrom , the Byzantine empire made a comeback.Under Basil II, known as the Bulgar Slayer, ( ) the empire had its most successes.
21New Obstacles Commercial rivals – Venice, Italy Seljuk Turks – took Asia Minor in the Battle of ManzikertEmperor asked Christians in the west for help.The result was a series of Crusades to free the east and the Holy Land in Palestine from Muslim rule.
22CrusadesIn 1204, the Christian army from the west invaded Constantinople, capturing and looting the city.Apparently, Venetian merchants had sent the “Crusaders” to Constantinople to destroy their commercial rival.Neither their cause nor their conduct was holy!
23Crusades The Byzantine empire never recovered fully from that attack. It went on for 200 years, severely weakened.Then in 1453, the Muslim Ottoman Turks, sacked the city and killed the last Byzantine emperor.
24Page 132. Read The Fall of Constantinople, May 30, 1453.
25If Constantinople was a Christian city, why did God let it fall to the Muslims?
26The Muslims turned the Hagia Sophia into a mosque and added Minarets The Muslims turned the Hagia Sophia into a mosque and added Minarets. They covered the beautiful frescos because their religion prohibits picturing human figures.In 1935, the Turkish government turned the Hagia Sophia into a museum.
27Contributions of the Byzantine Civilization The Byzantine Empire had acted as a shield for the west against the spread of Islam.The Byzantine Empire helped preserve and transmit the classical heritage of Greece and Rome.
28Contributions of the Byzantine Civilization Some people groups copied the governmental system of the Byzantines, which had come from ancient Rome.Many pagan people of Eastern Europe adopted Orthodox Christianity and Byzantine culture.Cyril & Methodius took the gospel and a written language system to the Slavic people of Russia and southeastern Europe.
29Contributions of the Byzantine Civilization Byzantine art was beautiful and glorified God.They used mosaics to decorate and tell stories.The churches were beautiful examples of Byzantine architecture, copied by many cultures.Domed structures, such as the Hagia Sophia.
30Early Russia Russia spans 2 continents and is ethnically diverse. The most populous group is the Slavs.West Slavs – Poles & Czechs – Danube RegionYugo-Slavs – South Slavs – Balkan areaEast Slavs – ancestors of the Russians – between the Baltic Sea and the Black Sea
31Early RussiaVarangians – Swedish Norsemen who plundered then settled the inland waterways between the Baltic Sea and the Black Sea.Rurik, a Varangian warrior, took control of Novgorod in 862, marking the beginning of Russian history.
32Early Russia Russia was strongly influenced by the Byzantine culture. Vladimir I adopted Byzantine Christianity in 988.ArtRussian iconsOnion-shaped domeSlavic alphabetGreek writings into SlavicNative Russian literature
33Early RussiaYaroslav “the Wise” ( ) – sponsored the earliest Russian code of laws, which combined Slavic tribal law and Byzantine law.
34Early RussiaThe Tartars, fierce Mongolian warriors from central Asia, swept into Russia, destroyed the city of Kiev, and ruled Russia until the late 15th Century.
35The Islamic Civilization Islam started in Arabia with a man named Muhammad.He was attracted to the monotheism of the Christians and Jews as opposed to the polytheism of the Arabs.
36The Founding of Islam Muhammad lived from 570-632. His homeland is Mecca in Arabia.When he was 40 years old, he began to have visions that the angel Gabriel was speaking to him. (p. 137)
37The Founding of IslamAt first only his friends and family believed him.He was ridiculed by the people of Mecca who were pagans who worshipped at the Kaaba, a sacred shrine housing hundreds of pagan idols.Thousands of people made “pilgrimages” to this shrine every year, making trade very profitable.
38The Founding of IslamThe traders feared that this monotheistic religion of Muhammad would spread and people would stop their pilgrimages, causing business to suffer.Therefore they persecuted him and his followers.
39The Founding of IslamMuhammad and his followers fled to Medina to escape persecution.This move is called the Hegira (or flight) and marks YEAR 1 of the Muslim calendar.
41In Medina, Muhammad preached his message and gained many followers. The people of Medina made him their religious, political, and military leader.Muhammad led his Muslim armies to force people to convert to Islam or die.
42Muhammad returned to his home city, Mecca, and conquered it. He then made Mecca the holy city of his new religion.
43Allah is the Arabic name for God. Islam is the name of the religion and means “submission” for submission to Allah.Muslims, “submitters to Allah,” are the followers of Islam.Koran/Q’uran is the sacred book of the Muslims.
44Muslims believe in one god and that Muhammad is the most important and last prophet. See page 138 for quotes from Koran.Muslims believe that Ishmael was the son of the promise to Abraham.They believe that Ishmael was the son whom God asked Abraham to sacrifice, but then provided the lamb instead.
45Muslims believe that Jesus was also a prophet of Allah, but deny his deity. They believe Jesus was a good moral teacher.Muslims reject the Trinity. (p. 139 quote)
46Five Pillars of Islam What is a pillar? 1. an upright shaft or structure, of stone, brick, or other material, relatively slender in proportion to its height, and of any shape in section, used as a building support, or standing alone, as for a monument: Gothic pillars; a pillar to commemorate Columbus.2. a natural formation resembling such a construction: a pillar of rock; a pillar of smoke.3. any upright, supporting part; post: the pillar of a table.4. a person who is a chief supporter of a society, state, institution, etc.: a pillar of the community.
47Five Pillars of Islam1. Shahadah – No god but Allah, Mohammad is prophet2. Salat – Pray 5 times a day facing Mecca3. Zakat – Give to the poor4. Sawm – fast from sunrise to sunset during Ramadan5. Hajj – make at least 1 pilgrimage to Mecca in one’s lifetime.
48Errors of IslamWhat are they? (p )Blue Mosque in Istanbul
49The Spread of Islam Muhammad united Arabia under Islam. Successors were “Caliphs,” close friends and relatives of Muhammad.They exercised spiritual, political, & military authority.
50The Spread of Islam Abu Bakr – 1st Caliph (632-634) Umar – 2nd Caliph ( )Uthman – 3rd Caliph ( )Ali – 4th Caliph ( )They expanded Islam by conquering Palestine, Syria, Egypt, Iraq, and Persia.
51Factors aiding their expansion: 1. Their desire for fertile land2. The weakness of the Byzantine & Persian Empires (7th Century AD)3. Islamic unity.Jihad – holy war defending the honor of Islam
52At first Arabs dominated Islam and the Islamic empire, but they treated their non-Arab converts poorly.The non-Arabs helped overthrow the Umayyad Caliphate and installed the Abbasid Caliphate, which granted better treatment to non-Arab Muslims.
53The Abbasid Caliphate marked the peak of the Muslim Empire. They controlled more territory than Ancient Rome had.Capital was moved to Baghdad, which became a great commercial center.
54The Seljuk Turks were a Sunni Muslim dynasty who expanded the Muslim empire into Asia Minor, taking territory away from the Byzantine Empire.This expansion into Christendom led the Christians of western Europe to be alarmed enough to launch Crusades to take back the Holy Land from the Muslims.
55Muslim Cultural Contributions The Muslims embraced the cultures of the peoples they conquered.Trade Routes to China, India, East AfricaProducts: paper, silk, muslin, linen, damask, woven carpets, tooled leather, filigree jewelry, engraved silver & gold, knives & swords, dates, oranges, lemons, apricots, peaches, melons.
57Translated writings of Greeks, Persians, and Indians into Arabic Translated writings of Greeks, Persians, and Indians into Arabic. (Examples: Aristotle, Plato, Galen, Hippocrates, Archimedes, Euclid, Ptolemy, et al.)
58Muslim Contributions to Medicine al Razi & ibn Sina: small pox, tuberculosisSurgeriesHospitalsCleanliness & sanitation
59Muslim Contributions to Literature Omar Khayyam – Rubaiyat, poem page 143
60Mathematics Borrowed from Indians and Greeks. Arabic numerals Decimal systemConcept of zeroGeometry - GreekTrigonometry - GreekAlgebra
61Art & ArchitectureMuhammad forbid representation of humans and animals.Muslim artists used abstract designs.CaligraphyManuscript illuminationMosques: domes, minarets