Presentation on theme: "Hawaiian History. Pre-Contact Hawaii Archaeological evidence combined with the degree of similarity in languages, cultural practices and transported."— Presentation transcript:
Archaeological evidence combined with the degree of similarity in languages, cultural practices and transported plants indicate that the order of migration was first to the east to the Cook Islands, then on to Tahiti Nui, the Society Islands, the Marquesas islands, Easter Island, Hawaii, and finally south to New Zealand.
Some historians claim that sometime around the fourth or fifth century A.D., the first planned migrations came from the Marquesas, in extreme eastern Polynesia. For five centuries the Marquesans settled and lived peacefully on the new land - Hawaii. Around 1,200 A.D., the Tahitians arrived. Tahitian customs, legends, and language became the Hawaiian way of life.
Kapu System Characterized by a complex religious, governmental and cultural system that reflected the harmonious relationship the early Hawaiians had with the natural world. Like all societies, the Hawaiians had a set of rules or laws (kapu) to help guide their people. The Kapu System outlined actions that were appropriate and inappropriate for people of different ranks. For example, in the case of conservation, an alii (chief) could forbid people from eating or using certain plants, animals, or other resources. These restrictions could be for certain people and for certain times of the year. With the aid of kapu, the scarce island resources were protected from over-exploitation. Due to the Kapu System, Hawaiians were great conservationists and had excellent observation skills.
Hawaiian Akua (Gods) Hawaiian Akua (Gods) Ku - God of War Kane - God of Life Lono - God of Agriculture Kanaloa - God of Ocean (Waters)
Kapu - 4 Groups People The alii, chiefs who ruled specific territories and who held their positions on the basis of family ties and leadership abilities - the chiefs were thought to be descendants of the gods and the highest chiefs, alii kapu, were considered gods. The kahuna, priests or skilled craftspersons that performed important religious ceremonies and served the alii as close advisers; The makaainana, commoners (by far the largest group) who raised, stored, and prepared food, built houses and canoes, and performed other daily tasks; and The kauwa, outcasts forced to lead lives segregated from the rest of Hawaiian society.
Hawaiian Timeline 1300-1500s Hawaiian population is growing exponentially, Heiau honoring the gods and chiefs are built (religious temples) 1580-1600 Liloa was the dominant chief and ruled in peace 1600-1620 ` Umi (son of Liloa) ruled and inherited the war god Kuka’ilimoku
War God - Kuka’ilimoku
1600s-1700s Ahupua’a - Land division system from the Mountains to the sea which provided for all. Extensive farming of plants Extensive aquaculture practices with fishponds throughout Hawaii Off shore grounds were managed by an ‘ohana (family) umeke (fish traps)
Ali’i (cont.) 1620-1640 Keali`iokaloa, `Umi's son, is an unpopular leader of Hawai`i. Keawenui, his brother, follows, when he defeats his nephew, Keali`iokaloa's son, Kuka`ilani.
Ali’i 1700-1800 Lonomakahiki - grandson to ‘Umi Keawe great grand nephew of Lonomakahiki Alapa’inui rules and moves government from Kailua to Kohala, due to the proximity of Kohala to Maui, Alapai attacks Maui Kekaulike - Ruler of Maui attacks Hawaii after Maui is attack by Alapa’I Kalani’opu’u grandson of Keawe leads a revolt against Alapa’i son, Keawe`opala. Kalani`opu`u wages war against Maui and during this time meets Captain Cook on his first visit to the Islands. Kalani`opu`u meets Cook again when he anchors at Kealakekua the next year. It is during a kidnap attempt against Kalani`opu`u, who was meant to be ransom for a stolen cutter, that Cook is killed. At Kalani`opu`u's death, he passes his kingdom to his son Kiwala`o but bequeaths his war god, Kuka`ilimoku, to his nephew Kamehameha.
Kamehameha I Kamehameha I : Pai'ea Life: 1758? - May 8 1819 Royal Reign: 1810 - May 8 1819 King Kamehameha is well known for being the first Hawaiian King on written record to have unified the Hawaiian Islands under single ruler in 1810. When he was born, he was taken to be raised by his uncle in Pololu.
Ali’I 1700-1800 (cont.) Kamehameha battles Kiwala`o, Kiwala`o's brother Keoua, and their uncle Keawemauhili at Moku`ohai. Kiwala`o is killed by Kamehameha's ally Ke`eaumoku; Keoua and Keawemauhili escape, returning to Ka`u and Hilo. 1791 Seeking to conquer all of Hawai`i Island, Kamehameha heeds the advice of a high priest and builds Pu`ukohola, a large heiau dedicated to his war god, Kuka`ilimoku. Invited to the dedication ceremonies, his remaining rival Keoua is killed on arrival by Ke`eaumoku. Keoua's death and sacrifice cement Kamehameha's rule.1794 Kamehameha reconquers Maui after uniting Hawai`i Island under his rule. builds Pu`ukohola builds Pu`ukohola
Puu Kohola heiau sits atop the hill for which it is named. The rocks to build this heiau came from Pololu Valley 25+ miles
Painting by Herb Kane depicting the Building of this Heiau