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Chapter 11 Section 5.  Demand for Asian products drove Western imperialists to seek possession of Southeast Asian lands.  Southeast Asian independence.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 11 Section 5.  Demand for Asian products drove Western imperialists to seek possession of Southeast Asian lands.  Southeast Asian independence."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 11 Section 5

2  Demand for Asian products drove Western imperialists to seek possession of Southeast Asian lands.  Southeast Asian independence struggles in the 20 th century have their roots in this period of imperialism.

3  As the Europeans did in Africa, they rushed to divide up Southeast Asia.  These lands form part of the Pacific Rim (the countries that border the Pacific Ocean).  Western nations desired the Pacific Rim lands due to their strategic location along the sea route to China.

4  Early in the 18 th century, the Dutch East India Company established control over most of the 3,000 mile long chain of Indonesian islands.  British established a trading port at Singapore.  France took over Indochina.  Germans claimed the Marshall Islands.

5  The lands of Southeast Asia were perfect for plantation agriculture.  As these products, such as coffee, bananas, and sugar cane, became more important, Europeans raced to claim the lands.

6  The Dutch added to their territory in southeast Asia.  They eventually gained control of present-day Indonesia (Dutch East Indies).  The Dutch treated Indonesia as their home.  They lived and worked there.  Dutch established a rigid class system.  Dutch  rich & educated Indonesians  plantation workers.  Farmers were forced to plant specified crops on 1/5 of their land.

7  The British take control of Singapore as a way to compete with the Dutch.  This served as a stop for their ships when traveling in the East.

8  The French took over Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia.  The combined states became known as French Indochina.  The French used direct colonial management.  They filled all important positions in the government.  They did not encourage local industry.  4x as much land was devoted to rice production.  Exported and not given to peasants.  Set the stage for Vietnamese resistance.

9  Colonization brought mixed results in Southeast Asia.  Economies grew based on cash crops and exported goods.  Education, health and sanitation improved.  Millions of people migrated to work on plantations and the mines in Southeast Asia.  The mixing of cultures led to the racial and religious tensions in this area as seen today.

10  Because Americans had fought for their independence from Britain, most of them disliked the idea of colonizing other nations.  Some Americans felt it was their duty to help America become a world power by colonizing.  Others felt that colonizing would open new markets and trade possibilities.

11  The United States acquired the Philippine Islands, Puerto Rico and Guam as a result of the Spanish- American War in  President McKinley told the public he wanted to “educate Filipinos and uplift and Christianize them”.  The Filipinos were promised immediate independence after the Spanish-American War.

12  The United States struggled with Filipino nationalists but defeated them in  U.S. promised to prepare the Filipinos for self-rule.  The U.S. built roads, railroads, hospitals and school systems.  Businessmen encouraged growing cash crops instead of food crops  food shortages.

13  U.S. interest in Hawaii began around 1790 when Hawaii was a port on the way to China and East India.  Americans established sugar cane plantations and it changed Hawaii’s economy.  By 1850, sugar cane accounted for 75% of Hawaii’s wealth.

14  In 1890, the McKinley Tariff Act passed by the U.S. government set off a crisis in the islands.  The act eliminated the tariffs on all sugar entering the United States.  Now, sugar from Hawaii was no longer cheaper than sugar produced elsewhere.  Cut into the sugar producers’ profits.  Some U.S. business leaders pushed for annexation (adding of the territory to the U.S.) of Hawaii.  Making Hawaii a part of the U.S. meant that Hawaiian sugar could be sold for greater profits because American producers got an extra two cents a pound from the U.S. government.

15  Queen Liliuokalani was the ruler of Hawaii at this time.  She called for a new constitution and wanted to give power back to the Hawaiians and away from the wealthy businessmen.  U.S. businessmen wanted to overthrow her.  She was removed from power in  Hawaii was annexed in 1898.

16  The period of imperialism was a time of great power and domination of others by mostly European powers.  As the 19 th century closed, the lands of the world were all claimed.  The European powers now faced each other with competing claims.  Their battles would become the focus of the 20 th century.


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